- Slides: 42
Introducing the Convention UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Section
In this presentation … UNESCO and its Conventions The Intangible Heritage Convention • • • The Woodcrafting Knowledge of the Zafimaniry © J. Ségur/ZED Inscribed on the RL in 2008 2 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO Purposes of the Convention Organs of the Convention Two Lists and a Register Operational Directives (ODs) ICH Fund Obligations and benefits
UNESCO and its Conventions Intergovernmental organization with 195 Member States Five sectors: Education, Natural Sciences, Social & Human Sciences, Culture and Communication & Information Seven UNESCO Conventions in the fields of culture and heritage: • tangible, intangible and natural heritage • diversity of cultural expressions • copyright 3 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE
The Convention’s definition of intangible heritage (1) Article 2. 1: For the purposes of the Convention, the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage.
The Convention’s definition of intangible heritage (2) Article 2. 1 continues: This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity.
The Convention’s definition of intangible heritage (3) Article 2. 1 further: For the purposes of this Convention, consideration will be given solely to such intangible cultural heritage as is compatible with existing international human rights instruments, as well as with the requirements of mutual respect among communities, groups and individuals, and of sustainable development.
Intangible heritage domains Article 2. 2 (a) oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage; (b) performing arts; (c) social practices, rituals and festive events; (d) knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe; (e) traditional craftsmanship.
CULTURE Culture is “the set of distinctive spiritual, material intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group”, encompassing, “in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs” 2001 Declaration on Cultural Diversity
Three related UNESCO Conventions on culture and heritage There are three related UNESCO conventions on culture and heritage: • Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) • Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003) • Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005) 10 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
World Heritage (1972) Intangible Heritage (2003) ●Conservation of World Heritage ●Safeguarding of all ICH properties expressions, skills, practices and knowledge ●Cultural and/or natural ●Outstanding universal value ●Authenticity and integrity help to define value, often restricting change ●Cultural and/or social ●Communities concerned define value, as a representative for their identity expression ●ICH changes over time * 2004 Nara Intangible and Tangible Experts’ Meeting concluded in the Yamato Declaration underlying the notion of “living heritage”, rejecting for the ICH the authenticity criterion and promoting the representativity. 11 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Diversity of Cultural Intangible Heritage (2003) Expressions (2005) ●Cultural activities, goods and ●Skills, practices, expressions services (products) and knowledge ●Cultural expressions: often new, ●ICH is a collective practice, individual creations transmitted ‘from generation to generation’ ●Focus on cultural industries, dissemination and development ●Focus on safeguarding practice and transmission of ICH 12 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
• 1989 Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore • 1993 Human Living Treasures programme • 1998 Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity ➢ expert-driven models ➢ reproduction of the WHC outstanding universal value idea(l) 13 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Contents of the Intangible Heritage Convention ● Preamble ● Lists and Register (Articles 16– 18) ● Purposes of the Convention ● International cooperation and (Article 1) assistance (Articles 19 -24) ● Definitions (Article 2) ● ICH Fund (Articles 25– 28) ● Organs of the Convention (Articles 4– 10) ● Reporting (Articles 29– 30) ● Safeguarding – national level (Articles 11– 15) 14 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO ● Ratification, etc. (Articles 32– 33)
The Convention – a flexible instrument • Few obligations • Few definitions • Open definitions • Non-exhaustive classifications (domains of ICH, safeguarding measures) • No official glossary
Objectives of the Convention Article 1 ● Safeguarding ● Respect ● Awareness and mutual appreciation ● International cooperation and assistance 16 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
The two Lists of the Convention • Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity – RL (Article 16) • List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding – USL (Article 17) • Register 17 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Criteria for inscription of an ICH element on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (OD I. 2) R. 1 The element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention. R. 2 Inscription of the element will contribute to ensuring visibility and awareness of the significance of the intangible cultural heritage and to encouraging dialogue, thus reflecting cultural diversity worldwide and testifying to human creativity. R. 3 Safeguarding measures are elaborated that may protect and promote the element. R. 4 The element has been nominated following the widest possible participation of the community, group or, if applicable, individuals concerned and with their free, prior and informed consent. R. 5 The element is included in an inventory of the intangible cultural heritage present in the territory(ies) of the submitting State(s) Party(ies), as defined in Articles 11 and 12 of the Convention. 18 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Criteria for inscription of an ICH element on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding – USL (OD I. 1) U. 1 The element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention. U. 2 (a)The element is in urgent need of safeguarding because its viability is at risk despite the efforts of the community, group or, if applicable, individuals and State(s) Party(ies)concerned; or (b) The element is in extremely urgent need of safeguarding because it is facing grave threats as a result of which it cannot be expected to survive without immediate safeguarding. U. 3 A safeguarding plan is elaborated that may enable the community, group or, if applicable, individuals concerned to continue the practice and transmission of the element. U. 4 The element has been nominated following the widest possible participation of the community, group or, if applicable, individuals concerned and with their free, prior and informed consent. U. 5 The element is included in an inventory of the intangible cultural heritage present in the territory(ies) of the submitting State(s) Party(ies), as defined in Articles 11 and 12 of the Convention. U. 6 In cases of extreme urgency, the State(s) Party(ies) concerned has (have) been duly consulted regarding inscription of the element in conformity with Article 17. 3 of the Convention. 19 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Register of Best Safeguarding Practices (ar. 18. 3, ODs 42 -46 ) – Criteria for inscription P. 1 The programme, project or activity involves safeguarding, as defined in Article 2. 3 of the Convention. P. 2 The programme, project or activity promotes the coordination of efforts for safeguarding intangible cultural heritage on regional, subregional and/or international levels. P. 3 The programme, project or activity reflects the principles and objectives of the Convention. P. 4 The programme, project or activity has demonstrated effectiveness in contributing to the viability of the intangible cultural heritage concerned. P. 5 The programme, project or activity is or has been implemented with the participation of the community, group or, if applicable, individuals concerned and with their free, prior and informed consent. P. 6 The programme, project or activity may serve as a subregional, regional or international model, as the case may be, for safeguarding activities. P. 7 The submitting State(s) Party(ies), implementing body(ies), and community, group or, if applicable, individuals concerned are willing to cooperate in the dissemination of best practices, if their programme, project or activity is selected. P. 8 The programme, project or activity features experiences that are susceptible to an assessment of their results. P. 9 The programme, project or activity is primarily applicable to the particular needs of developing countries. 20 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Traditional art and symbolism of Kelaghayi, making and wearing women’s silk headscarves - Azerbaidjan Rooted in traditions found along the Great Silk Road, the art of Kelaghayi is concentrated in two locations in the Republic of Azerbaijan: the city of Sheki and the Basgal settlement. Kelaghayi making consists of several stages: fabric weaving, dyeing and woodblock decoration. The colours of headscarves have symbolic meanings and are often tied to specific social occasions, such as weddings, mourning ceremonies, daily activities and celebrations. The art of Kelaghayi making is transmitted through nonformal apprenticeship only, and is primarily a family occupation. The traditional practice of making and wearing headscarves is an expression of cultural identity and religious traditions and a symbol of social cohesion, reinforcing the role of women and strengthening the cultural unity of Azerbaijani society © 2010 M. Rahimov/ Ministry of Culture and Tourism 21 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO Inscribed on the RL in 2014 (9. COM).
Manufacture of cowbells Portugal The Portuguese cowbell is an idiophone percussion instrument with a single internal clapper, usually hung on a leather strap around an animal’s neck. It is traditionally used by shepherds to locate and control their livestock, and creates an unmistakable soundscape in rural areas. The cowbells are handmade from iron, The technical expertise involved is transmitted within the family from fathers to sons. Alcáçovas in Portugal is the main centre for manufacture of cowbells and its inhabitants take great pride in this heritage. However, this practice is increasingly becoming unsustainable due to recent socioeconomic changes. At present, there are only 11 surviving workshops and 13 cowbell makers, 9 of whom are over 70 years old. Inscribed in 2015 (10. COM) on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding © Augusto Brazio, 2014 22 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Register of Best Safeguarding Practices Article 18 The Bulgarian Chitalishte Bulgarian chitalishta (cultural community centres) are uniformly distributed across the whole territory of Bulgaria. They are established by communities themselves and are open to everyone irrespective of age, gender, political and religious views. Firstly established in 1856, they have been recognized as a key organizational unit of Bulgarian society ever since. In accordance with the Chitalishta Act of 1996, chitalishta are non-governmental self-regulatory organizations. By law, they perform cultural and educational activities aimed at safeguarding the customs and traditions of Bulgarian people, ensuring access to information, distributing knowledge and familiarizing citizens with the values and achievements of science, arts and culture. © Ministry of Culture of Bulgaria/Tsvetan Nedkov, 2013 23 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO Chitalishta are central to the process of transmitting intangible cultural heritage in the country, with elderly members playing a key role in encouraging young people to get involved. The efficiency of chitalishte is demonstrated by their increasing numbers over the years and the growing numbers of participants in their activities, representing all ages and population groups. Chitalishta organize festivals, celebrations, gatherings, exhibitions and so on, and one innovative approach for developing chitalishta is the establishment of local centres for documenting, archiving and handing over knowledge and skills.
Organs of the Convention General Assembly: sovereign body of the Convention. All States Parties are members. Intergovernmental Committee: twenty-four Member States; implements the Convention. UNESCO Secretariat: serves the Organs; assists in implementing the Convention. 24 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Operational Directives • Guide implementation of the Convention • Include regulations and procedures for Lists, Register and Fund as well as reporting obligations • Prepared by Committee, approved by General Assembly • First set approved 2008; amended and enlarged in 2012 and 2014 25 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Intangible Cultural Heritage Fund Articles 25– 28 • Mainly supports safeguarding, inventory-making, capacity building • States Parties contribute to the Fund • Some States make additional contributions • States Parties may request financial assistance, singly or jointly • Few requests for assistance received so far 26 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Exercise (20 mins): obligations of States Parties to the Convention In Articles 11– 15 and 26– 29 of the Convention, please identify where it says: • ‘States Parties shall. . . ’ • ‘States Parties undertake …’ • ‘States Parties shall endeavour to. . . ’ 27 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Obligations of States Parties to the Convention • Safeguard ICH on their territory (Article 11(a)) • Ensure community participation in identifying, defining and managing their ICH (Articles 11(b) and 15) • Draw up inventories of the ICH in their territory (Article 12. 1) • Contribute to the ICH Fund (Article 26) • Report to the Committee (Article 29) 28 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Benefits of implementing the Convention (1) Better safeguarding of the ICH within the States Parties, contributing to: • Well-being of communities • Respect and understanding between communities • Sustainable development • Enhancement of cultural diversity and human • creativity 29 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
Benefits of implementing the Convention (2) International cooperation and assistance: 30 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO • Sharing expertise and information internationally • Sharing safeguarding practices • Accessing assistance from the Fund • Nominating elements and safeguarding projects • Participating in the Organs of the Convention • Cooperating regionally and internationally: for example, on shared heritage
https: //ich. unesco. org/en/ 31
In conclusion (1) The Convention aims at: • Safeguarding ICH within and by communities in a context of sustainable development and mutual respect • Fully involving communities in any action concerning their ICH and empowering communities • Enhancing cultural diversity, human creativity, mutual understanding and international cooperation 39 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO
In conclusion (2) The Convention: • Is run by an Intergovernmental Committee, controlled by a General Assembly, both assisted by the UNESCO Secretariat • Has Operational Directives, a Fund, two Lists and a Register of Best Practices • Ratification imposes some obligations on States Parties • Implementation brings benefits for States Parties, the communities concerned and other stakeholders 40 © All Rights Reserved: UNESCO