Intro to Biology and 8 Characteristics of Living Things
Activating Strategy • Intro to Biology • Pair up with another person in the class and create a list of what you believe Biology is or you will be taught.
1. Living things are ORGANIZED • All living things are made of the same collection of chemicals, but we are organized as…- molecules • proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids proteins carbohydrates DNA
Organization of Living Things Cells make tissues Tissues make organs Organs make organ systems Organs systems make organisms
2. Response to a Stimulus Be able to respond to their environment. stimulus response v. Humans: v. Plants:
3. Maintain Homeostasis • Is the body maintaining internal balance (a steady state). When all the life processes are occurring normally, it is maintaining homeostasis. • 8 Life Processes include: nutrition, respiration, excretion, regulation, growth, synthesis, transporting and reproduction.
Time Out! • Pair and Review (Characteristics 1 -3) • Pair up with another at your table and Review their Characteristics. • If you feel they are missing vital information add to it.
Example - In Plants Guard Cells open and close to maintain water balance
Maintaining Homeostasis • If a body is not in homeostasis then FEEDBACK MECHANISMS kick in. Examples: • Body Temperature • Sweating –cools body • Shivering- heats the body • Sugar Levels– Pancreas produces hormone called Insulin- maintains glucose (sugar) levels
Respiration (Life Process) • Release of energy from the food and oxygen we take in. Mitochondria is the organelle that performs respiration. • There are two types: – Aerobic- uses oxygen to make energy – Anaerobic- does not use oxygen to make energy
Excretion (Life Process) • Removal of liquid wastes like sweat and urine. A 10
Regulation (Life Process) • Control of all activities in an organism. This helps maintain balance (homeostasis). • 2 body systems work to maintain this Nervous and Endocrine (hormones)
4. Metabolism • Is the total of all the life processes. When a person states he has high or low metabolism this is what they are talking about. It is the combination of all the life functions working together.
5. Growth and 6. Development • To increase in size • Organisms develop through various stages like babies into adults.
Nutrition (Life Process) • Taking in food and processing the materials needed for life aid in growth and development as well as other processes. There are 2 types: Autotrophic - Plants. Make own food Heterotrophic - Animals - Need to go out and get food
Synthesis (Life Process) • Making simple substances more complex. • Example Photosynthesis- plants use CO 2 and H 2 O along with sunlight to make Glucose (sugar)
Time Out! • Pair and Review with a new partner! (check Characteristics 4 -6)
7. Reproduction and Heredity • Production of a new individual. Not needed for individual to survive. Must have for the species to survive. Two Types: Sexual- 2 Parents Asexual- 1 Parent
8. Adapt to Environment • Adaptations are traits giving an organism an advantage in a certain environment. • Variation of individuals is important for a healthy species. • As the environment changes species must also change to survive or go extinct. For example: fish have gills
Time Out! • Pair and Review-3 rd New Partner (check Characteristics 7 & 8)
What is Biology? & How is it used?
Virus • A Virus is not considered a living thing because it cannot carry out all the life processes (which are used as criteria to identify living things) such as reproduction. To stay “alive” a virus must invade the cell of a living organism. It needs a Host cell to stay “alive. ”
What is biology? • Bio means life • ology- means the study of • Biology is the study of life (anything living) and its interaction with the environment. • Continuously seeking to discover facts about the natural world.
Where is biology used? • Everywhere – examples: • Medicine: X-ray machines, drugs/vaccines, artificial skin and other organs • Agriculture: super-plants and more productive animals • Industry: bacteria that break down waste, sewage and oil products
Important Lab Safety Guidelines for Biology • Conduct—No Horseplay, Practical Jokes or Pranks will be tolerated. Dismissal from Lab immediately! • Follow all rules (verbal and written) not using equipment in appropriately! Dismissal from Lab! • No Food or Drink allowed and never sample lab specimens or chemicals.
Lab Safety Continued • Always wear safety googles! • Keep your work area clean during lab and clean-up after finishing lab! • Report any accidents to Mr. Stallard immediately! • Know the location of all safety equipment: (eye wash, fire extinguisher, safety shower, etc)
Lab Safety-Last one I promise! • Dress Code: – Tie back long hair – No baggy clothing – No open-toed shoes (sandals, flip-flops, etc)
Time Out! • Lab Safety Key Point Graphic Organizer – Complete the Key Points (the most important Lab Safety issues in your opinion in the Key) – Explanation as to why in its cloud!