Intro to Anatomy & Physiology
Anatomy v. Physiology
Basic Terms to Know… • Anatomy- study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts • Physiology-study of how the body and its parts work or function • Gross (macroscopic) anatomy- large structures, easily observable • Microanatomy- very small structures, can only be viewed with a microscope
Levels of Organization
Cardiovascular Heart, Arteries, Veins, Capillaries and Blood -Pumping Blood -Distributing Oxygen -Collecting CO 2 -Distributing Nutrients -Maintaining Body Temperature
Respiratory Lungs, Bronchus, Bronchioles, Alveoli, Trachea, Nasal Cavity -Brings in O 2 to Blood -Expels CO 2 from Blood and out of Body
Integument Skin, Hair, and Glands -Protective barrier -Maintain Body Temp -Removal of Salts -Cushion -Cutaneous Sensation -Blood Storage
Skeletal Bones, Osteons and Marrow -Calcium Storage -Lipid Storage -Blood Cell Formation -Movement -Protection
Muscular Muscles, Tendons, Ligament, and Sarcomeres -Movement -Protection -Generate Body Heat -Posture -Stabilize Joints
Nervous Brain, Spinal Cord, Peripheral Nerves, Neurons Sensory Input, Integration and Output
Endocrine Hormones and various organs Works with Nervous System to coordinate and integrate cellular activity
Lymphatic vessels, Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Tonsils, Lymphatic Cells -Immune Response -Return fluids to blood
Digestive Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Intestines, Lumen and Microvilli -Ingestion, digestion and absorption of materials
Urinary Kidneys, Bladder, Ureters, Urethra, Urine, Nephron -Filtration and Removal of waste, -Metabolize Vitamin D -Hormone production
Reproductive Systems Ovaries, Uterus, Vagina Testicles, Penis, Semen Makes more people if you’re not careful!
Body Planes, Directions, and Cavities
Body Planes There are three body planes: 1) Transverse or Horizontaldivides the body into a top and bottom.
2) Mid-Sagittal or Mediandivides the body into an equal right and left side. 3) Frontal or Coronaldivides the body into a front and a back side.
What They Look Like
Sooooooo……. What if…. • You are a surgeon and planning to do open heart surgery…. you would need to make a ________ cut into the chest cavity. • You have a patient that has gangrene in the lower portion of their leg and you need to amputate…. . You would make a ________ cut through the leg. • The abdominal muscles and muscles of the back are separated by the ________ plane.
Sooooooo……. What if…. • You are a surgeon and planning to do open heart surgery…. you would need to make a MID-SAGITTAL cut into the chest cavity. • You have a patient that has gangrene in the lower portion of their leg and you need to amputate…. . You would make a TRANSVERSE cut through the leg. • The abdominal muscles and muscles of the back are separated by the CORONAL plane.
Body Cavities There are two main body cavities: Ventral: (Belly) Which is subdivided into……. a) Abdominopelvic- which consists of: the abdominal and pelvic regions-- contains the digestive and reproductive organs. b) Thoracic- consists of: upper torso or chest region--contains the heart and lungs. Dorsal: (Back) Which is subdivided into……. . a) Cranial- which contains the head and includes the brain. b) Vertebral- which includes the spinal column.
OK, sooooo……. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Which cavity is the heart found in? Which cavity contains the spinal cord? Which cavity contains the ovaries? Which cavity contains the stomach? Which cavity contains the lungs? Which cavity consists of the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities?
OK, sooooo……. 1. Which cavity is the heart found in? Thoracic 2. Which cavity contains the spinal cord? Vertebral 3. Which cavity contains the ovaries? Abdominopelvic 4. Which cavity contains the stomach? Abdominal Cavity 5. Which cavity contains the lungs? Thoracic 6. Which cavity consists of the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities? Ventral Body Cavity
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Studying Life-- Biology Chapter 1; Section 2 & 3
Maintenance: Movement Responsiveness Growth Reproduction Respiration Digestion Absorption Metabolism Excretion Life Requirements Survival: Nutrients Oxygen Water Body Temp Atmospheric Pressure
How do we decide if something is alive or not?
Biotic – Living Things (organisms) • Bio- means Life • Biotic means living things( organisms).
Abiotic- not living • Prefix “A” = NOT • Abiotic- means NOT living. • It was never alive.
+ Characteristics of Living Things- All living things Have DNA Grow and Develop http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=W-FO 8 t. ZQGfk
All living things are made up of CELLS!!!
+ Characteristics continued • Respond to stimuli • Evolve as a group
+ Characteristics Continued the chemical reactions Maintainall Homeostasisthat happen within an • Reproducemake offspring! keep body conditions organism. stable
+ Characteristics Continued • Metabolism- the total chemical reactions in an organism • Need and use energy
Characteristics of Living Things All made of cells Grow and Develop DNA Respond Reproduce Maintain Homeostasis Use energy
Homeostasis • The tendency of an organism or cell to regulate its internal environment and maintain equilibrium. Feedback controls---stabilize health and functioning. • Homeostasis = maintaining a stable internal environment • Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact
Components of Homeostatic Mechanisms 1. Receptors Provide info about conditions (stimulus) in internal environment 2. Set Point What a particular value should be 3. Effectors Cause responses –altering conditions in internal environment
Positive and negative feedback systems • Afferent pathways: carry nerve impulses from receptors into the central nervous system • Example: if you touch a hot burner, the message would be sent to your central nervous system • Efferent pathways: carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous system to the effectors (muscles or glands) • Example: your central nervous system responds by sending a message to pull your hand away from the hot burner
Homeostatic Control 1. Stimulus: produces a change to a variable (factor being regulated) 2. Receptor: detects the change (monitors environment and responds to change (stimuli) 3. Input: info travels along the (afferent) pathway to the control center (control center determines appropriate response) 4. Output: info sent from the control center down the (efferent) pathway to the effector 5. Response: a response from the effector balances out the original stimulus to maintain homeostasis
Homeostasis and Dynamic Equilibrium
Negative v. Positive Feedback
Negative v. Positive Feedback
Negative and Positive Feedback Systems • Negative feedback mechanisms: change the variable back to its original state (most common) STABILIZATION • Example: home thermostat: if thermostat is set at 70 degrees and the receptor (thermometer) determines that the temperature is below 70 degrees, it shuts off the heat (effector) • In short, the output reduces the original effect of the stimulus • Positive feedback mechanisms: the output enhances the original stimulus: AMPLIFICATION • Example: when a vessel is damaged, platelets start clinging to the injured site and release chemicals that attract more platelets which pile up until the clot is formed • Example: during labor, oxytocin (hormone) is released which speeds up and intensifies contractions, the increase in contractions causes more oxytocin to be released (even faster and stronger contractions), until birth
Fever Video https: //tinyurl. com/y 8 jdpo 8 a
• Crash Course-Intro to Anatomy & Physiology • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=u. BGl 2 Bujk. PQ Homeostasis video summary (14 minutes) • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=CLv 3 Sk. F_Eag • Amoeba Sisters-Homeostasis • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Iz 0 Q 9 n. TZCw 4