- Slides: 26
Intro. Into Human Anatomy & Physiology
I. Anatomy & Physiology A. Definitions 1. Anatomy– study of structre and the relationships among structures 2. Physiology– function of the body parts
II. Organization A. Levels 1. subatomic ie. Neutrons, protons, electrons 2. Atomic ie. Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen 3. Molecules ie. Water, Sugar 4. Macromolecules ie. Protein, DNA 5. Organelles ie. mitochondria. Nucleus 6. cell – the basic structural and functional units. All vary in size and shape. ie. Muscle, blood, skin, bone 7. Tissue – groups of similar cells that work together to perform a particular function. ie. Squamous epithelium, connective tissue, muscle 8. organ – composed of two or more different tissues usually having a recognizable shape and function. ie. Skin, femur, heart, kidney 9. System - consists of related organs that have a common function ie. Integumentary, skeletal, muscle 10. Organism – ie. human
Human Organ Systems
Basic Physiological Processes • structural and functional organization of the body • homeostasis • metabolism
Review and Assessment Fill in the blanks with: cardiovascular, skeletal, or urinary. 1. The ________ system supports the body. 2. The ________ system eliminates waste. 3. The ________ system transports oxygen.
III. Characteristics of Life – Movement, Responsiveness, Growth, Reproduction, Respiration, Digestion, Absorption, Circulation, Assimilation, and Excretion -- Taken together, these physical and chemical events that obtain, release, and use energy are a major part of metabolism -- Metabolism - The chemical reactions in cells of the body that use or release energy
Metabolism • anabolism – big molecules made from smaller molecules • catabolism – big molecule broken into smaller molecules • metabolic rate
IV. Maintenance of Life A. Requirements 1. Water ( most abundant chemical in the body) (a) reaction environment (b) transporter (c) temp. regulation 2. Food (a) nutrients 3. Oxygen (a) aids in production of energy 4. Heat (a) product of most metabolic reactions 5. Pressure (a) atmospheric, blood, etc
V. Homeostasis A. Definition 1. maintaining a stable internal environment B. How is this a system of checks and balances ? 1. receptors 2. Control Center 3. effectors
Homeostasis • Negative feedback – conditions exceeding a set limit in one direction trigger a negative reaction in the opposite direction • Positive feedback – conditions cause a reaction to accelerate
Homeostatic Imbalance • organ systems have a diminished ability to keep the body’s internal environment within the normal ranges
Review and Assessment True or False? 1. Negative feedback mechanisms increase disruptive forces. 2. Homeostatic control mechanisms maintain a steady internal environment. 3. Anabolism breaks molecules down.
Body Cavities • dorsal (posterior) cavities – Cranial – spinal • ventral (anterior) cavities – thoracic – abdominopelvic – abdominal – pelvic
VI. Organization of the body A. Cavities 1. Dorsal 2. ventral 3. cranial 4. Thoracic 5. abdominal 6. abdominopelvic 7. Spinal 8. pelvic
VI. Organization of the body B. Planes
Describing the Human Body • anatomical position • planes – sagittal – frontal – transverse
The Metric System • • meter–measures length kilogram–measures mass second–measures time Kelvin–measures temperature
Review and Assessment Fill in the blanks with: diaphragm, kilogram, or thoracic. 1. The heart is located in the ________ cavity. 2. The ________ separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. 3. The metric base unit of mass is the ________.
VII. Directional Terminology
Common Directional Terms
Review and Assessment True or False? 1. The frontal plane divides the body into left and right halves. 2. Proximal means closer to the trunk. 3. Lateral means away from the midline of the body.
Early Greek and Roman Anatomists • Aristotle – wrote On the Parts of Animals • Galen – compiled numerous anatomical reports – first to assert that the brain controls muscles
Anatomists in the Renaissance • Leonardo da Vinci – The Vitruvian Man • Andreas Vesalius – De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body) • William Harvey – one of the first accurate descriptions of human physiology Reed/Shutterstock. com
Review and Assessment Fill in the blanks 1. The early Greek and Roman anatomists were Aristotle and ________. 2. Leonardo da Vinci sketched _____.