- Slides: 16
Intrinsic risk factors
Intrinsic Risk Factors • • • Postural defects Nutrition Fitness Level Muscle tightness Leg length discrepancy • Postural differences • • Decreased flexibility Prior injury Flexibility Joint laxity Age Being overweight Muscle weakness or imbalance
Muscle weakness and imbalance • Muscles exert a force on bones • Therefore they can pull them into certain positions- everyday positions • If muscles are put into shortened or lengthen position a long enough period • = they will respond by becoming shorter or longer
Muscle weakness and imbalance • This changes the forces acting on the bones and joints • = usually results in postural changes – Eg: slouching in your chairs……!!!! • Slouching – shoulders lengthened – Weak muscles between the shoulder blades – Weak upper back – Shortening of muscles in the chest
Muscle balance cont…. • This slouching changes the mechanics and action of the – Shoulder joint – Neck – Upper Spine • = therefore increased risk of injury
Posture • Postural patterns are maintained by a complex arrangement of – proprioceptive input – modified by habits – somatotype – psychogenic factors, such as self-esteem
Posture • The sports therapist must identify the structures and the muscles that are involved • so that the patient can begin to work on a corrective exercise programme (rehab)
Muscle imbalance These muscle imbalances develop into the very common postural pattern of forward shoulders and increased Kyphosis, with a forward head and loss of the cervical Lordosis
Flexibility and joint laxity • Flexibility= ? – Range of motion possible at the specific joint or through a series of joints • Influenced by? QUESTION! Which type has the greatest range of movement? – Type of joint – Structure – Position of muscles and tendons that cross it
Flexibility and joint laxity • ROM which is greater than ‘normal’ is known as…. . – Hypermobility • A joint is lax if the ligaments do not hold the bones/ joint together well – Why/ how may this occur? – If a joint is lax what could happen to the joint?
Leg length discrepancy • Most people have one leg longer than other • = therefore changes the forces going thought the muscles and joint • If there is a difference of 1. 5 cm how will our posture change?
Nutrition • What we eat determines…. . what? – How much energy we have – How much fat/ insulation we have – BUT! Most importantly how strong our bones are and how well recover after injury QUESTION!! What nutrients in our diet keep our bones strong? QUESTION!! What injuries are we prone to if we have weak bones?
Nutrition • In pairs, identify sports in which athletes would be at risk of injury due to their diets? – Gymnasts/ dancers – Sumo wrestlers (High protein diet- low carbs)
Fitness Level • How can fitness level be an intrinsic risk factor? – Recreational gym users most at risk- why? ? • How can we determine our fitness levels? – Fitness tests- but which ones?
Age • Old or young people most prone to injury? – Kids= accidents – Adults (18 -40)= intrinsic/ extrinsic risk factors – Adults (40+) = tendons degenerate, bones get weaker • Achilles tendon injuries very prevent in men of 40 years……why?
Overweight • Additional stress put on muscles, tendons and ligaments • Therefore even small movements create large forces • Additional stress put on internal organsheart etc….