- Slides: 11
Interviews • Unstructured - are not directed by a script. Rich but not replicable. • Structured - are tightly scripted, often like a questionnaire. Replicable but may lack richness. • Semi-structured - guided by a script but interesting issues can be explored in more depth. Can provide a good balance between richness and replicability.
Interview questions • Two types: − ‘closed questions’ have a predetermined answer format, e. g. , ‘yes’ or ‘no’ − ‘open questions’ do not have a predetermined format • Closed questions are easier to analyze · Avoid: − Long questions − Compound sentences - split them into two − Jargon and language that the interviewee may not understand − Leading questions that make assumptions e. g. , why do you like …? − Unconscious biases e. g. , gender stereotypes
Running an interview • Introduction – introduce yourself, explain the goals of the interview, reassure about the ethical issues, ask to record, present any informed consent form. • Warm-up – make first questions easy and non-threatening. • Main body – present questions in a logical order • A cool-off period – include a few easy questions to defuse tension at the end • Closure – thank interviewee, signal the end, e. g, switch recorder off.
Enriching the interview process • Props - devices for prompting interviewee, e. g. , a prototype, scenario
A note on focus groups • The first thing most people think of when they think about talking to users is assembling a focus group. Don’t do this. • Focus groups are artificial constructs that, like juries, can be swayed and manipulated by strong participants, throwing off the natural results You go to them
Summary • Three main data gathering methods: interviews, questionnaires, observation • Interviews may be structured, semistructured or unstructured • Techniques can be combined depending on study focus, participants, nature of technique and available resources
Try it out…. • In pairs • Let your partner look at artifacts on your mobile • Get them to explain the significance, when they were created etc. • Swap over • Now discuss possible additional services
Some interview techniques • Directed storytelling – Ask people to tell stories about specific times they performed an action or interacted with a product or service ( first time, didn’t work, did something new) • Unfocus group – Assemble a group of experts in a field to explore a subject or product from different viewpoints – get an atypical view • Role Playing – With a willing group, role play different scenarios ( emotions and attitudes can be solicited) • Extreme user interviews – Interview people on the outer edge of the subject matter • Desk/purse/briefcase tour – Ask people to give a tour of their desk etc; this can give you an insight into the tools work habits, personalities
Interview Case-study: Collaboration Among Mobile Workers (Nelson et al, 2001) • Access this case study in Links • Skim read the article answering the questions oppposite [http: //www. fxpal. com/? p=Quiet. Calls • • Focus of the study? Context of the study? Study methods used? What insights did these methods provide? • What design solution was proposed?
Interview Case-study: Collaboration Among Mobile Workers (Gutwin & Pinelle, 2003) • study focus/context Considered semiautonomous work of healthcare professionals • study methods – Three rounds of interviewing • Informal • Focussed on artefacts • Follow-up – Field-studies • Insights? – People leave ‘traces’ for others to make use of. – Low-effort/low-cost methods for communication are important – Asynchronous communication • Design solutions? – Simple digital tags? • (cf. Geo. Notes etc)