Intertextuality To learn about the concept of intertextuality

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Intertextuality To learn about the concept of intertextuality and how it works.

Intertextuality To learn about the concept of intertextuality and how it works.

What do you think the term means? • Inter • Textuality

What do you think the term means? • Inter • Textuality

What they mean • Inter: a prefix from Latin, where it meant “between, ”

What they mean • Inter: a prefix from Latin, where it meant “between, ” “among, ” “in the midst of, ” “mutually, ” “reciprocally, ” “together, ” “during” • Textuality: all of the attributes that distinguish the communicative content under analysis as an object of study

Intertextuality • the shaping of a text's meaning by another text. • Intertextual figures

Intertextuality • the shaping of a text's meaning by another text. • Intertextual figures include: allusion, quotation, calque, plagiarism, translation, pastiche and parody. • An example of intertextuality is a writer’s borrowing and transformation of a prior text, and incorporating an aspect of it in a new text.

Definition The shaping of texts' meanings by other texts. • Notion introduced by Julia

Definition The shaping of texts' meanings by other texts. • Notion introduced by Julia Kristeva. • Kristeva argued against the concept of a text as a isolated entity which operates in a self-contained manner and states that: "any text is the absorption and transformation of another"

Definition Where a text alludes to, or references, another text • Every text (and

Definition Where a text alludes to, or references, another text • Every text (and we can insert any cultural object here: image, film, web content, music etc. ) is a mosaic of references to other texts, genres, and discourses.

Intertexuality • Some texts refer directly to each other – such as in 'remakes'

Intertexuality • Some texts refer directly to each other – such as in 'remakes' of films, extra-diegetic references to the media / society in the animated cartoon The Simpsons, and many amusing contemporary TV ads. • The interpretation of these references is influenced by the audiences’ prior knowledge of other texts.

Audience Pleasures • This particularly self-conscious form of intertextuality credits audience with the necessary

Audience Pleasures • This particularly self-conscious form of intertextuality credits audience with the necessary experience to make sense of such references and offers the pleasure of recognition. • By referring to other texts and other media reminds us that we are in a mediated reality. This runs counter to the dominant 'realist' tradition which focuses on persuading the audience to believe in the on-going reality of the narrative.

Intertextuality and Genre • There are intertextual frameworks (references) at work that are less

Intertextuality and Genre • There are intertextual frameworks (references) at work that are less obvious or direct. • The assignment of a text to a genre provides the audience of the text with a key intertextual framework. • Each example of a genre utilises conventions which link it to other members of that genre. • Such conventions are at their most obvious in 'spoof' versions of the genre.

Intertextuality - Simpsons • Almost every episode of The Simpsons contains at least one

Intertextuality - Simpsons • Almost every episode of The Simpsons contains at least one film reference to a famous film scene. • The Simpsons also contains intertextual references to politics, religion – nearly every aspect of social, political and cultural life. • The grabs on the following slides are from an episode where the Simpsons referenced Psycho

Intertextuality - Simpsons

Intertextuality - Simpsons

Intertextuality - Simpsons

Intertextuality - Simpsons

Intertextuality - Simpsons

Intertextuality - Simpsons

Intertextuality - Simpsons

Intertextuality - Simpsons

Theory • In 1968 Barthes announced 'the death of the author' and 'the birth

Theory • In 1968 Barthes announced 'the death of the author' and 'the birth of the reader', declaring that 'a text's unity lies not in its origin but in its destination' - in other words there is no longer such a thing as an original text – very postmodern. • This highlights how interpretation lies with the audience – that it is subjective - it is the audience that creates meaning.

Something Else to Consider • The notion of intertextuality problematizes the idea of a

Something Else to Consider • The notion of intertextuality problematizes the idea of a text having boundaries and questions the separation of 'inside' and 'outside': • Where does a text 'begin' and 'end'? • This is postmodern