International Trade Comparative and Absolute Advantage International Trade

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International Trade Comparative and Absolute Advantage

International Trade Comparative and Absolute Advantage

International Trade International trade - voluntary exchange of goods and services between people of

International Trade International trade - voluntary exchange of goods and services between people of different nations

International Trade • Trade helps a nation move beyond their Production Possibility Curve or

International Trade • Trade helps a nation move beyond their Production Possibility Curve or Frontier G u n S F A B C Butter

3 Ways to Move Beyond PPF 1. Additional Resources 2. New Technology 3. International

3 Ways to Move Beyond PPF 1. Additional Resources 2. New Technology 3. International Trade

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Brenda bakes 9 cakes

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Brenda bakes 9 cakes a day OR mows 3 lawns Absolute Advantage: The ability to produce more of a given product with given resources than another country. • Who has the absolute advantage in cake production? • Who has the absolute advantage in lawn mowing production?

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Brenda bakes 9 cakes

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Brenda bakes 9 cakes a day OR mows 3 lawns Absolute Advantage: The ability to produce more of a given product with given resources than another country. • Who has the absolute advantage in cake production? Billy - 10 is more than 9 • Who has the absolute advantage in lawn mowing production? Billy - 5 is more than 3

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Brenda bakes 9 cakes

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Brenda bakes 9 cakes a day OR mows 3 lawns

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Brenda bakes 9 cakes

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Brenda bakes 9 cakes a day OR mows 3 lawns COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE According to David Ricardo, whoever can make a product at the lowest opportunity cost should produce it. To determine who has the lower opportunity cost we need to get our ratio to show for every one item produced what will be given up or what could have been produced using those resources.

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Cakes Lawns 10 5

Billy bakes 10 cakes a day OR mows 5 lawns Cakes Lawns 10 5 10 ÷ 5 5 ÷ 5 2 1 2÷ 2 1 1 ÷ 2 1/2 Opportunity Cost To produce 1 lawn it costs 2 cakes To produce 1 cake the opportunity cost is 1/2 lawn

Brenda bakes 9 cakes a day OR mows 3 lawns Cakes Lawns 9 3

Brenda bakes 9 cakes a day OR mows 3 lawns Cakes Lawns 9 3 9 ÷ 3 3 1 To produce 1 lawn it costs 3 cakes 3÷ 3 1 1/3 To produce 1 cake it costs 1/3 lawn

Billy Cakes Lawns Brenda Cakes Lawns 10 5 9 3 2 1 3 1

Billy Cakes Lawns Brenda Cakes Lawns 10 5 9 3 2 1 3 1 1 1/2 1 1/3 Who has the comparative advantage in cake production? Who has the comparative advantage in lawn production?

Billy Cakes Brenda Lawns Cakes Lawns 10 5 9 3 2 1 3 1

Billy Cakes Brenda Lawns Cakes Lawns 10 5 9 3 2 1 3 1 1 1/2 1 1/3 Who has the comparative advantage in cake production? Brenda because 1/3 is less than 1/2 Who has the comparative advantage in lawn production? Billy because 2 is less than 3

Billy Cakes Brenda Lawns Cakes Lawns 10 5 9 3 2 1 3 1

Billy Cakes Brenda Lawns Cakes Lawns 10 5 9 3 2 1 3 1 1 1/2 1 1/3 Terms of trade, or trading range 1 lawn mowing for 2 -3 cakes If trade takes place in this range it will be beneficial to both parties.

Advantages of trade based on comparative advantage: 1. all countries benefit - obtain more

Advantages of trade based on comparative advantage: 1. all countries benefit - obtain more goods than if they produced everything on their own 2. interdependence between countries is greater, countries no longer produce everything themselves 3. standard of living increases for all

PPF for Billy C A K E S LAWNS When Billy makes 1 more

PPF for Billy C A K E S LAWNS When Billy makes 1 more cake, he gives up 1/2 lawn.

PPF for Billy C A K E S LAWNS When Billy mows 1 more

PPF for Billy C A K E S LAWNS When Billy mows 1 more lawn, he gives up 2 cakes.

PPF for Brenda C A K E S LAWNS When Brenda bakes 1 more

PPF for Brenda C A K E S LAWNS When Brenda bakes 1 more cake, she gives up 1/3 lawn.

PPF for Brenda C A K E S LAWNS When Brenda mows 1 more

PPF for Brenda C A K E S LAWNS When Brenda mows 1 more lawn, she gives up 3 cakes.

International Trade Is based on Comparative advantage; countries specialize in what they can produce

International Trade Is based on Comparative advantage; countries specialize in what they can produce more cheaply Specialization leads to Economic efficiency leads to Less Self Sufficiency leads to Economic Interdependence Specialization allows more efficient use of our scarce resources.