International Relations Grand Debates University of Helsinki Department

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International Relations Grand Debates University of Helsinki, Department of Political Science, Fall 2003 Christer

International Relations Grand Debates University of Helsinki, Department of Political Science, Fall 2003 Christer Pursiainen For downloading the Power Point presentation, go to: www. kolumbus. fi/christer. pursiainen teaching

Contents 1. 5. Development of the Discipline 2. Idealism vs. Realism 3. Traditionalism vs.

Contents 1. 5. Development of the Discipline 2. Idealism vs. Realism 3. Traditionalism vs. Scientism 4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism

1. Development of the Discipline Economics Strategy History Thucydides Philosophy Aquinas International Law 16

1. Development of the Discipline Economics Strategy History Thucydides Philosophy Aquinas International Law 16 th 17 th Machiavelli Grotius 18 th Smith 19 th Marx Clausewitz Rousseau Kant 20 th Imperialism theories History of Diplomacy Geography Geopolitics WWI The birth of the discipline 1920 -30 s IDEALISM WWII REALISM Traditionalism First Debate 1950 s Functionalism Natural sciences SCIENTISM (Behavioralism, FPA) Second Debate 1960 s Peace research Realism revisited Third Debate 1970 s Dependency (Marxism) NEOREALISM LIBERALISM 1980 s Critical theory Rationalism INSTITUTIONALISM Humanities Feminism Fourth debate 1990 s Postmodernism CONSTRUCTIVISM 2000 s Postructuralism Developed Game theory Fifth Debate?

2. Idealism vs. Realism IDEALISM: n WWI How to avoid major wars n peaceful

2. Idealism vs. Realism IDEALISM: n WWI How to avoid major wars n peaceful changes instead of changes through war n international law n League of Nations

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: international relations should not be studied on the basis

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: international relations should not be studied on the basis how they should be but how they are n politics is governed by objective laws n the roots of those laws lie in the human nature n the laws are objective because human nature does not change in the course of times n

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: n we can distinguish between the ’economic person’, the

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: n we can distinguish between the ’economic person’, the ’religious person’, the ’moral person’, the ’political person’ etc. n in order to understand politics, we must study only the ’political person’ n we should study the political actions of a statesman (as a synonym of a state)

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: theory of political realism is based on the idea

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: theory of political realism is based on the idea of a rational actor n we should compare the real events to this ideal, normative picture n

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: the behaviour of a political person in social context

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: the behaviour of a political person in social context is based on power n maintenance of power; strengthening of power; demonstration of power n

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: n power does not mean only physical or military

2. Idealism vs. Realism REALISM: n power does not mean only physical or military power, but refers to all kind of control over the minds and actions of other individuals n power is important, because whatever interests or goals we have, in order to achieve them in politics this brings the desire to control the actions of others

3. Traditionalism vs. Scientism TRADITIONALISM: n Realism, historical approaches etc. n understanding politics requires

3. Traditionalism vs. Scientism TRADITIONALISM: n Realism, historical approaches etc. n understanding politics requires historically based wisdom rather than data-based models or mechanistic theories

3. Traditionalism vs. Scientism SCIENTISM (Behavioralism): n ”Scientific Study of international relations” n no

3. Traditionalism vs. Scientism SCIENTISM (Behavioralism): n ”Scientific Study of international relations” n no a priori theories n hypotheses observable data regularities/correlations theory/model n graphic or mathematic models n Foreign Policy Analysis (foreign policy models)

4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism REALISM slightly revisited: n more ”scientific” methods, models,

4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism REALISM slightly revisited: n more ”scientific” methods, models, classifications n state as an actor, less focus on ’human nature’ n realism as a theory of balance of power

4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism LIBERALISM: n ”complex interdependece”: n a) societies are

4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism LIBERALISM: n ”complex interdependece”: n a) societies are connected not only by interstate relations but transgovernmental and transnational relations as well

4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism LIBERALISM: n b) there is no hierarchy between

4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism LIBERALISM: n b) there is no hierarchy between issue areas, i. e. , military security does not dominate other issues n c) where complex interdependence prevails, military power is ineffective and irrelevant to resolve disagreements n d) international organisations important in setting the agenda and inducing coalition formation

4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism MARXISM: n theories of imperialism n dependency theories

4. Realism vs. Liberalism vs. Marxism MARXISM: n theories of imperialism n dependency theories n world system theories; centre-periphery

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n objective environment: anarchic structure of international

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n objective environment: anarchic structure of international system competitive security system n states behave rationally according to their national interests, since those who do not will not survive

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n zero-sum states are calculating relative gaines

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n zero-sum states are calculating relative gaines n ’self-help’ system: cooperation difficult/superficial/temporary

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n security dilemma is always present: n

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n security dilemma is always present: n a) the unintended decrease in the security of others when one state increases its own security

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n b) the uncertainty of present or

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n b) the uncertainty of present or future intentions of other states n c) a state feels insecure if it does not act and insecure if it does

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n security dilemma is regulated by balance-ofpower

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism NEOREALISM: n security dilemma is regulated by balance-ofpower politics

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism INSTITUTIONALISM: n Subjective environment: individual security system n

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism INSTITUTIONALISM: n Subjective environment: individual security system n international institutions can change states’ cost-benefit calculations n institutions can help states to overcome some relative gain problems and therefore states are calculating also absolute gains

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism INSTITUTIONALISM: n though we may not completely remove

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism INSTITUTIONALISM: n though we may not completely remove the security dilemma, it can be mitigated by creating interdependence and common security regimes, norms and rules, creating reciprocal relations and positive expectations of each other’s behaviour

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism CONSTRUCTIVISM: n intersubjective environment: cooperative security community possible

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism CONSTRUCTIVISM: n intersubjective environment: cooperative security community possible n agency and structure are interrelated: ”anarchy is what states make of it”

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism CONSTRUCTIVISM: n the security dilemma is often regulated

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism CONSTRUCTIVISM: n the security dilemma is often regulated and sometimes mitigated but it can also be resolved through changes in identities and threat perceptions

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism Self-understanding of theories NR -only most important things,

5. Neorealism vs. Institutionalism vs. Constructivism Self-understanding of theories NR -only most important things, like the law of gravity does not explaing the path minimalistic theory -explains of a leaf in wind I -explains the same as NR + more C -explains the same as NR + I + more

1. Development of the Discipline Economics Strategy History Thucydides Philosophy Aquinas International Law 16

1. Development of the Discipline Economics Strategy History Thucydides Philosophy Aquinas International Law 16 th 17 th Machiavelli Grotius 18 th Smith 19 th Marx Clausewitz Rousseau Kant 20 th Imperialism theories History of Diplomacy Geography Geopolitics WWI The birth of the discipline 1920 -30 s IDEALISM WWII REALISM Traditionalism First Debate 1950 s Functionalism Natural sciences SCIENTISM (Behavioralism, FPA) Second Debate 1960 s Peace research Realism revisited Third Debate 1970 s Dependency (Marxism) NEOREALISM LIBERALISM 1980 s Critical theory Rationalism INSTITUTIONALISM Humanities Feminism Fourth debate 1990 s Postmodernism CONSTRUCTIVISM 2000 s Fifth Debate? Developed Game Theory

1. Development of the Discipline Economics Strategy History Thucydides Philosophy Aquinas International Law 16

1. Development of the Discipline Economics Strategy History Thucydides Philosophy Aquinas International Law 16 th 17 th Machiavelli Grotius 18 th Smith 19 th Marx Clausewitz Rousseau Kant 20 th Imperialism theories History of Diplomacy Geography Geopolitics WWI The birth of the discipline 1920 -30 s IDEALISM WWII REALISM Traditionalism First Debate 1950 s Functionalism Natural sciences SCIENTISM (Behavioralism, FPA) Second Debate 1960 s Peace research Realism revisited Third Debate 1970 s Dependency (Marxism) NEOREALISM LIBERALISM 1980 s Critical theory Rationalism INSTITUTIONALISM Humanities Feminism Fourth debate 1990 s Postmodernism CONSTRUCTIVISM 2000 s Postructuralism Developed Game theory Fifth Debate?

International Relations Grand Debates University of Helsinki, Department of Political Science, Fall 2003 Christer

International Relations Grand Debates University of Helsinki, Department of Political Science, Fall 2003 Christer Pursiainen For downloading the Power Point presentation, go to: www. kolumbus. fi/christer. pursiainen teaching