International Business Environments and Operations 13e Part Three

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International Business Environments and Operations, 13/e Part Three Theories and Institutions: Trade and Investment

International Business Environments and Operations, 13/e Part Three Theories and Institutions: Trade and Investment 8 -1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 8 Cross-National Cooperation and Agreements 8 -2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 8 Cross-National Cooperation and Agreements 8 -2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter Objectives • To identify the major challenges of the World Trade Organization •

Chapter Objectives • To identify the major challenges of the World Trade Organization • To discuss the pros and cons of global, bilateral, and regional integration • To describe the static and dynamic impact of trade agreements on trade and investment flows • To define different forms of regional economic integration • To compare and contrast different regional trading groups, including but not exclusively the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) • To describe other forms of global cooperation such as the United Nations and the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 8 -3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Economic Integration Approaches to economic integration may be: • Bilateral integration-two countries cooperate closely,

Economic Integration Approaches to economic integration may be: • Bilateral integration-two countries cooperate closely, usually in the form of tariff reductions. • Regional integration-a group of countries located in the same geographic proximity decide to cooperate, i. e. the European Union. • Global integration-countries worldwide cooperate through the WTO. 8 -4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The World Trade Organization • • GATT: Predecessor to the WTO Most Favored Nation

The World Trade Organization • • GATT: Predecessor to the WTO Most Favored Nation Dispute Settlement The Rise of Bilateral Agreements 8 -5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Regional Economic Integration • Regional trade agreements—integration confined to a region and involving more

Regional Economic Integration • Regional trade agreements—integration confined to a region and involving more than two countries. • Geographic proximity is an important reason for economic integration. 8 -6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Major Types of Economic Integration • Free trade area—no internal tariffs. • Customs union—no

Major Types of Economic Integration • Free trade area—no internal tariffs. • Customs union—no internal tariffs plus common external tariffs. • Common market—customs union plus factor mobility. 8 -7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Effects of Integration • • • Static Effects Dynamic Effects Trade Creation Trade Diversion

Effects of Integration • • • Static Effects Dynamic Effects Trade Creation Trade Diversion Economies of Scale Increased Competition 8 -8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Major Regional Trading Groups • European Union • North American Free Trade Agreement •

Major Regional Trading Groups • European Union • North American Free Trade Agreement • The Americas: CARICOM, MERCOSUR, CAN, LAIA • ASEAN • APEC • The African Union 8 -9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

European Union • • • Predecessors Organizational Structure The Single European Act Monetary Union

European Union • • • Predecessors Organizational Structure The Single European Act Monetary Union Expansion Bilateral Agreements 8 -10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

How to Do Business with the EU: Implications for Corporate Strategy • Companies need

How to Do Business with the EU: Implications for Corporate Strategy • Companies need to determine where to produce products. • Companies need to determine what their entry strategy will be. • Companies need to balance the commonness of the EU with national differences. 8 -11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

North American Free Trade Agreement • Includes Canada, the United States, and Mexico. •

North American Free Trade Agreement • Includes Canada, the United States, and Mexico. • Went into effect on January 1, 1994. • Involves free trade in goods, services, and investment. • Is a large trading bloc but includes countries of different sizes and wealth. 8 -12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

NAFTA Rational • U. S. -Canadian trade is the largest bilateral trade in the

NAFTA Rational • U. S. -Canadian trade is the largest bilateral trade in the world. • The United States is Mexico’s and Canada’s largest trading partner. 8 -13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Rules of Origin and Regional Content • Rules of origin-goods and services must originate

Rules of Origin and Regional Content • Rules of origin-goods and services must originate in North America to get access to lower tariffs. • Rules of Regional Content-50 % of the net cost of most products must come from the NAFTA region 8 -14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Impact of NAFTA • Wages, Investment, and Labor: An abundance of cheap labor and

Impact of NAFTA • Wages, Investment, and Labor: An abundance of cheap labor and lax environmental standards has enticed U. S. companies to invest heavily in Mexico • A major challenge to NAFTA is illegal immigration. 8 -15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

How to Do Business with NAFTA: Implications for Corporate Strategy • Predictions and Outcomes

How to Do Business with NAFTA: Implications for Corporate Strategy • Predictions and Outcomes – Companies would look at NAFTA as one big regional market – U. S. companies would run Canadian and Mexican companies out of business once the markets opened up – Mexico looked at as a consumer market rather than a production location 8 -16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Regional Economic Integration in the Americas • • The Caribbean Community CARICOM MERCOSUR The

Regional Economic Integration in the Americas • • The Caribbean Community CARICOM MERCOSUR The Andean Community (CAN) Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) 8 -17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Economic Integration in Central America and the Caribbean 8 -18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson

Economic Integration in Central America and the Caribbean 8 -18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Latin American Economic Integration 8 -19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as

Latin American Economic Integration 8 -19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Regional Economic Integration in Asia • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) • Brunei

Regional Economic Integration in Asia • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) • Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam 8 -20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

8 -21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

8 -21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Calls for Closer Cooperation • Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) • Challenges to Solidity

Calls for Closer Cooperation • Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) • Challenges to Solidity – Lack of binding treaties • Goal of “Open Regionalism” – Trade liberalization to non-APEC countries on an unconditional, MFN, or reciprocal basis 8 -22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Regional Economic Integration in Africa There are several African trade groups, but they rely

Regional Economic Integration in Africa There are several African trade groups, but they rely more on their former colonial owners and other developed markets for trade than they do on each other. 8 -23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Future: Will the WTO Overcome Bilateral and Regional Integration Efforts? • Regional integration might

Future: Will the WTO Overcome Bilateral and Regional Integration Efforts? • Regional integration might actually help the WTO achieve its objectives • NAFTA and the EU will continue to develop stronger linkages and expand • Regional integration in Africa will continue at a slow pace due to the existing political and economic problems there 8 -24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Other Forms of International Cooperation • The United Nations • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) •

Other Forms of International Cooperation • The United Nations • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) • Global Compact 8 -25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Commodity Agreements • Commodities-raw materials or primary products that enter into trade, such as

Commodity Agreements • Commodities-raw materials or primary products that enter into trade, such as metals or agricultural products. • Many commodity agreements now exist for the purpose of: • Discussing issues • Disseminating information • Improving product safety 8 -26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • Price Controls and Politics • Output and

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • Price Controls and Politics • Output and Exports • The Downside of High Prices 8 -27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. 8 -28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall