Internal Analysis Strategic Management BA 491 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

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Internal Analysis Strategic Management (BA 491) STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Assessing the Internal Environment

Internal Analysis Strategic Management (BA 491) STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Review: Strategic Direction Company vision • Massively inspiring • Overarching Company vision • Long-term

Review: Strategic Direction Company vision • Massively inspiring • Overarching Company vision • Long-term • Driven by and evokes passion • Fundamental statement of the organization’s • Values Hierarchy of Goals • Aspiration • Goals Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

Review: Strategic Direction Mission statements • Purpose of the company • Basis of competition

Review: Strategic Direction Mission statements • Purpose of the company • Basis of competition and competitive advantages Company vision Mission statements • More specific than vision • Focused on the means by which the firm will compete Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hierarchy of Goals 3

Review: Strategic Direction Strategic objectives • Operationalize the mission statement • Measurable, specific, appropriate,

Review: Strategic Direction Strategic objectives • Operationalize the mission statement • Measurable, specific, appropriate, realistic, timely, challenging, resolve conflicts that arise, and yardstick for rewards and incentives Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Company vision Mission statements Strategic objectives Hierarchy of Goals 4

Value-Chain Analysis • Sequential process of value-creating activities • The amount that buyers are

Value-Chain Analysis • Sequential process of value-creating activities • The amount that buyers are willing to pay for what a firm provides them • Value is measured by total revenue • Firm is profitable to the extent the value it receives exceeds the total costs involved in creating its product or service Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5

The Value Chain General administration Human resource management Technology development Procurement Inbound logistics Operations

The Value Chain General administration Human resource management Technology development Procurement Inbound logistics Operations Outbound logistics Marketing and sales Service Source: Adapted from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6

Interrelationships among Value-Chain Activities within and across Organizations • Importance of relationships among value

Interrelationships among Value-Chain Activities within and across Organizations • Importance of relationships among value activities • Interrelationships among activities within the firm • Relationships among activities within the firm and with other organizations (e. g. , customers and suppliers) Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7

Resource-Based View of the Firm • Two perspectives • The internal analysis of phenomena

Resource-Based View of the Firm • Two perspectives • The internal analysis of phenomena within a company • An external analysis of the industry and its competitive environment • Three key types of resources • Tangible resources • Intangible resources • Organizational capabilities Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Relatively easy to identify, and include physical and financial

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Relatively easy to identify, and include physical and financial assets used to create value for customers • Financial resources n n n Firm’s cash accounts Firm’s capacity to raise equity Firm’s borrowing capacity • Physical resources n n n Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Modern plant and facilities Favorable manufacturing locations State-of-the-art machinery and equipment 9

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Relatively easy to identify, and include physical and financial

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Relatively easy to identify, and include physical and financial assets used to create value for customers • Technological resources n n n Trade secrets Innovative production processes Patents, copyrights, trademarks • Organizational resources n n Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Effective strategic planning processes Excellent evaluation and control systems 10

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Difficult for competitors (and the firm itself)

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Difficult for competitors (and the firm itself) to account for or imitate, typically embedded in unique routines and practices that have evolved over time • Human n n Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Experience and capabilities of employees Trust Managerial skills Firm-specific practices and procedures 11

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Difficult for competitors (and the firm itself)

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Difficult for competitors (and the firm itself) to account for or imitate, typically embedded in unique routines and practices that have evolved over time • Innovation and creativity n n Technical and scientific skills Innovation capacities • Reputation n n Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Effective strategic planning processes Excellent evaluation and control systems 12

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Organizational Capabilities Competencies or skills that a

Types of Resources Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Organizational Capabilities Competencies or skills that a firm employs to transform inputs to outputs, and capacity to combine tangible and intangible resources to attain desired end • Outstanding customer service • Excellent product development capabilities • Innovativeness of products and services • Ability to hire, motivate, and retain human capital Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13

How Resources and Capabilities Lead to Advantages Source: Adapted from “Competing on Resources: Strategy

How Resources and Capabilities Lead to Advantages Source: Adapted from “Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990’s” by D. J. Collis and C. Montgomery, Harvard Business Review, 73, no. 4 (1995). Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14

Firm Resources and Sustainable Competitive Advantages Is the resource or capability… Implications Valuable •

Firm Resources and Sustainable Competitive Advantages Is the resource or capability… Implications Valuable • Neutralize threats and exploit opportunities Rare • Not many firms possess Difficult to imitate • Physically unique • Path dependency • Causal ambiguity • Social complexity Difficult to substitute Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. • No equivalent strategic resources or capabilities 15

Is the Resource Valuable? Organizational resources can be a source of competitive advantage only

Is the Resource Valuable? Organizational resources can be a source of competitive advantage only when they are valuable • Enable a firm to formulate and implement strategies that improve its efficiency or effectiveness Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16

Is the Resource Rare? Organizational resources also possessed by competitors are not sources of

Is the Resource Rare? Organizational resources also possessed by competitors are not sources of competitive advantage • Common strategies based on similar resources give no one firm an advantage • Competitive advantages are gained only from uncommon resources, resources that are rare to other competitors Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17

Can the Resource be Imitated? Difficulty in imitating resources is key to value creation

Can the Resource be Imitated? Difficulty in imitating resources is key to value creation because it constrains competition • Profits generated from inimitable resources are more likely to be sustainable Physical uniqueness n Path dependency n Causal ambiguity n Social complexity n Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18

Are Substitutes Readily Available? There must be no strategically equivalent valuable resources that are

Are Substitutes Readily Available? There must be no strategically equivalent valuable resources that are themselves not rare or inimitable • Substitutability may take at least two forms Competitor may be able to substitute a similar resource that enables it to develop and implement the same strategy n Very different firm resources can become strategic substitutes (such as e-business as a substitute for physical retail facility) n Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19

Criteria for Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Strategic Implications Is a resource or capability… Valuable

Criteria for Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Strategic Implications Is a resource or capability… Valuable Rare Difficult Without Implications to Imitate Substitutes for Competitiveness No No Competitive disadvantage Yes No No No Competitive parity Yes No No Temporary competitive advantage Yes Yes Sustainable competitive advantage Source; Adapted from J. Barney, “Firm Resources a Sustained Competitive Advantage, ‘ Journal of Management 17 (1991), pp. 99 -120. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20

The Balanced Scorecard • Provides a meaningful integration of many issues that come into

The Balanced Scorecard • Provides a meaningful integration of many issues that come into evaluating a firm’s performance • Four key perspectives • How do customers see us? (customer perspective) • What must we excel at? (internal perspective) • Can we continue to improve and create value? (innovation and learning perspective) • How do we look to shareholders? (financial perspective) Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21

The Balanced Scorecard Customer Perspective • Time • Quality • Performance and service •

The Balanced Scorecard Customer Perspective • Time • Quality • Performance and service • Cost Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22

The Balanced Scorecard Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective • Processes • Cycle time •

The Balanced Scorecard Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective • Processes • Cycle time • Quality • Employee skills • productivity • Decisions • Actions • Coordination • Resources and capabilities Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23

The Balanced Scorecard Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective Innovation and Learning Perspective • Introduction

The Balanced Scorecard Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective Innovation and Learning Perspective • Introduction of new products and services • Greater value for customers • Increased operating efficiencies • Leadership Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24

The Balanced Scorecard Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective • Profitability • Growth • Shareholder

The Balanced Scorecard Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective • Profitability • Growth • Shareholder value • Increased market share Innovation and Learning Perspective Financial Perspective • Reduced operating expenses • Higher asset turnover Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25

Financial Ratio Analysis • Five types of financial ratios • Short-term solvency or liquidity

Financial Ratio Analysis • Five types of financial ratios • Short-term solvency or liquidity • Long-term solvency measures • Asset management (or turnover) • Profitability • Market value • Meaningful ratio analysis must include • Analysis of how ratios change over time • How ratios are interrelated Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26

Financial Ratio Analysis: Historical Comparisons Exhibit 3. 8 Historical Trends: Return on Sales (ROS)

Financial Ratio Analysis: Historical Comparisons Exhibit 3. 8 Historical Trends: Return on Sales (ROS) for a Hypothetical Company Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27

Financial Ratio Analysis: Comparison with Industry Norms Financial Ratio Grocery Semiconductors Store Skilled-Nursing Facilities

Financial Ratio Analysis: Comparison with Industry Norms Financial Ratio Grocery Semiconductors Store Skilled-Nursing Facilities Quick Ratio (times) 1. 5 0. 5 1. 1 Current ratio (times) 3. 2 1. 6 1. 9 Total liabilities to net worth (%)34. 8 114. 0 93. 0 Collection period (days) 54. 8 2. 9 40. 2 Assets to sales (%) 98. 1 21. 2 108. 7 Return on sales (%) 3. 1 0. 9 2. 0 Exhibit 3. 9 How Financial Ratios Differ across Industries Source: Dun & Bradstreet, Industry Norms and Key Business Ratios, 1999 -2000, Desktop Edition, SIC #01008999 © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright 28

Financial Ratio Analysis: Comparison with Key Competitors Sales* ($ billions) R&D budget ($ billions)

Financial Ratio Analysis: Comparison with Key Competitors Sales* ($ billions) R&D budget ($ billions) P&G Drug Division $ 0. 8 $ 0. 38 Bristol-Myers Squibb 20. 2 1. 80 Pfizer 27. 4 4. 00 Merck 32. 7 2. 10 Company (or division *Most recently completed fiscal year. Data: Lehman Brothers, Procter & Gamble Co. Source: R. Berner, “Procter & Gamble: Just Say No to Drugs, ” Business Week, October 9, 2000, p. 128; data courtesy of Lehman Brothers and Procter & Gamble. Copyright © 2005 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29