Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between

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Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules. Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a

Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules. Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule. Intermolecular vs Intramolecular • 41 k. J to vaporize 1 mole of water (inter) • 930 k. J to break all O-H bonds in 1 mole of water (intra) Generally, intermolecular forces are much weaker than intramolecular forces. “Measure” of intermolecular force boiling point melting point DHvap DHfus DHsub 11. 2

Intermolecular Forces 1. London Forces (Dispersion Forces) 2. Dipole-Dipole Interactions 3. Ion-Dipole Interactions (Salt

Intermolecular Forces 1. London Forces (Dispersion Forces) 2. Dipole-Dipole Interactions 3. Ion-Dipole Interactions (Salt dissolving in solution) 4. Hydrogen Bonding

Dispersion Forces Occur between every compound arise from the net attractive forces amount molecules

Dispersion Forces Occur between every compound arise from the net attractive forces amount molecules which is produced from induced charge imbalances Figure 10 -8 Olmsted Williams The larger the molecule the greater it’s Dispersion Forces are. Figure 10 -9 Olmsted Williams

The boiling point of long molecules increase with the length of the c chain.

The boiling point of long molecules increase with the length of the c chain. Olmsted Williams Fig 10 -10 Pg 437

How molecular shape affects the strength of the dispersion forces The shapes of the

How molecular shape affects the strength of the dispersion forces The shapes of the molecules also matter. Long thin molecules can develop bigger temporary dipoles due to electron movement than short fat ones containing the same numbers of electrons. Butane has a higher boiling point because the dispersion forces are greater. http: //www. chemguide. co. uk/atoms/bonding/vdw. html

Polarizability the ease with which the electron distribution in the atom or molecule can

Polarizability the ease with which the electron distribution in the atom or molecule can be distorted. Polarizability increases with: • greater number of electrons • more diffuse electron cloud Dispersion forces usually increase with molar mass. 11. 2

Is the Molecule Polar? The more Electronegative atom will pull the electron density of

Is the Molecule Polar? The more Electronegative atom will pull the electron density of the bond Closer to itself giving it a partial negative charge leaving the other Atom with a partially positive charge. This is a dipole moment.

Molecules with 3 Atoms Even though the C-O bond is polar, the bonds cancel

Molecules with 3 Atoms Even though the C-O bond is polar, the bonds cancel each other out because the molecule is linear the dipole moments are equal and in opposite directions. Therefore CO 2 is non-polar. CO 2 HCN SO 2 The dipole moment between H-C points in the direction of C. The dipole moment points between C-N points in the direction of the N. Therefore the dipole vectors are additive and HCN is polar SO 2 is a polar molecule because the S-O dipole Moments don’t cancel each other out due to the angle

Molecules with 4 Atoms CCl 4 is non-polar CHCl 3 is polar

Molecules with 4 Atoms CCl 4 is non-polar CHCl 3 is polar

How to Determine if a Molecule Is Polar 1. Draw Lewis Structure 2. If

How to Determine if a Molecule Is Polar 1. Draw Lewis Structure 2. If all of the regions of electron density are bound to the same thing (CCl 4; CO 2 ) than the molecule is non-polar 3. If the regions of electron density are not bound to the same thing than the molecule is polar (HCN; SO 2)

Which of the following molecules are polar (have a dipole moment)? H 2 O,

Which of the following molecules are polar (have a dipole moment)? H 2 O, CO 2, SO 2, and CH 4 O H H dipole moment polar molecule S O O dipole moment polar molecule H O C O no dipole moment nonpolar molecule H C H H no dipole moment nonpolar molecule 10. 2

Dipole-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between polar molecules Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid

Dipole-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between polar molecules Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid 11. 2

Dipole Forces occur between molecules containing a dipole moment. The positive end of the

Dipole Forces occur between molecules containing a dipole moment. The positive end of the dipole moment on one mole is attracted to the Negative end of the dipole moment on a nearby molecule. 2 -methyl propane (left) and acetone (right) Both compounds are about Equal in size and shape Figure 10 -11 Olmsted Williams

Ion-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule Ion-Dipole Interaction The

Ion-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule Ion-Dipole Interaction The larger the charge the stronger the force 11. 2

Olmsted Williams Fig 10 -34 A molecular picture showing the ion-dipole Interaction that helps

Olmsted Williams Fig 10 -34 A molecular picture showing the ion-dipole Interaction that helps a solid ionic crystal dissolve in water. The arrows indicate ion-dipole interactions.

What type(s) of intermolecular forces exist between each of the following molecules? HBr is

What type(s) of intermolecular forces exist between each of the following molecules? HBr is a polar molecule: dipole-dipole forces. There also dispersion forces between HBr molecules. CH 4 is nonpolar: dispersion forces. SO 2 O SO 2 is a polar molecule: dipole-dipole forces. There also dispersion forces between SO 2 molecules. 11. 2

The Hydrogen Bond

The Hydrogen Bond

water has the water has the lowest highest heat the highest heat of the

water has the water has the lowest highest heat the highest heat of the highest molar mass of fusion melting point vaporization boiling point The melting point, boiling point, heat of fusion and heat of vaporization of water are extremely high and do not fit the trend of properties relative to molar mass within Group VIA.

Water exhibits these unusual properties because of hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

Water exhibits these unusual properties because of hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

 • A hydrogen bond is an intermolecular bond. • A hydrogen bond is

• A hydrogen bond is an intermolecular bond. • A hydrogen bond is formed between polar molecules that contain hydrogen covalently bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom: F, O, N. F—H O—H N—H

 • it will be attracted to another F, O, or N, on another

• it will be attracted to another F, O, or N, on another molecule. • A dipole-dipole bond will be formed between the two molecules which is called a hydrogen bond covalent bond

Water in the liquid and solid states exists as groups in which the water

Water in the liquid and solid states exists as groups in which the water molecules are linked together by hydrogen bonds. 13. 8