Interdependence Interaction In Living Systems Systems Any group
- Slides: 31
Interdependence & Interaction In Living Systems
Systems Any group of parts that work together as a unit.
Organization of the Human Body n n Cells – 1 st level of organization; the basic unit of structure and function Tissues – a group of cells that perform that same function Types: Muscle, Connective, Nerve, & Epithelial n n Organs – a group of tissues that perform a specific function Organ systems – a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Interactions within the human body 11 Systems of the Human Body Nervous Cardiovascular Digestive Respiratory Muscular Skeletal Endocrine Excretory Immune Integumentary Reproductive
Nervous obtains and processes information from the body’s internal and external environment directs most body functions main components – brain, spinal cord, nerves Dendrite Axon Cell Body
Cardiovascular Circulatory transports needed materials to body cells removes wastes main components – heart, arteries, veins
Digestive breaks down food and absorbs the brokendown materials main components – liver Stomach gall bladder small intestine
Respiratory gets oxygen into the body removes carbon dioxide main components – trachea or windpipe, lungs, diaphragm
Muscular & Skeletal n Muscular – enables the body to move – – – n n Smooth: involuntary (digestive tract) Striated: voluntary (movement) Cardio: involuntary (heart) Skeletal – supports and protects the body Work together to enable movement
Endocrine produces chemicals called hormones that help control many body processes main components – glands and stomach, pancreas (insulin), and kidneys that produce hormones
Excretory removes wastes helps regulate water in the body main components – kidney and large intestine
Immune fights disease main components – liver, lymph nodes, blood, thymus Lymphocytes- white blood cells
Integumentary Skin– protects the body keeps water inside helps sense the external environment
Reproductive creates offspring determines male and female characteristics main components– ovaries, testes
Review l What is the largest organ in the human body? – l What type of muscle is the heart made out of? – l Cardiac Where does the process of digestion begin? – l Skin In the mouth (saliva and chewing) What is the dome shaped muscle that helps to move air called? – Diaphragm
Interactions & Interdependence n n Interactions: organ systems work together to do a specific job Interdependence: organ systems depend on each other and cannot work alone
Interactions: Transporting Oxygen n http: //www. shands. org/ health/graphics/images/ en/9828. jpg Respiratory – delivery of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide q Trachea – tube connecting to the lungs q Alveoli – round sacs in the lung q Moves oxygen from air to blood q Moves carbon dioxide from blood to air • Cardiovascular – carries oxygen from lungs to blood stream • Muscular – enables air to enter lungs • Diaphragm – dome shape muscle
Transporting Oxygen RESPIRATION BREATHING physical chemical
Interactions in digesting food Digestive – breaks down food into simpler substances to be used by body cells Ø Mouth and stomach – begins to break down food Ø Small intestine – completes the breakdown of food and absorbs the nutrients (absorbs through villi) Ø Large intestine – undigested food passes out of the body as waste
Interactions in digesting food Muscular – move jaws to breakdown food Peristalsis- involuntary movement of smooth muscles in the digestive tract Ø Enables you to swallow food Ø Within the stomach – food is churned and squeezed, broken down into smaller particles
Interactions in digesting food http: //www. glogster. com/media/2 /4/8/51/4085115. jpg Cardiovascular – carries nutrients absorbed through the small intestine to the blood Nutrients are carried throughout the body. small intestine magnified
Movements: Muscles, Bones, Nerves n n n Muscular – produce movement by contracting or shortening (voluntary striated muscles) Skeletal – muscles attached to bones move your body Nervous – involved in movement. Brain and nerves direct muscles to contract. Cardiovascular – circulates oxygen and food to cells Respiratory – brings oxygen into body, removes carbon dioxide Digestive – processes food for delivery to cells
Review l Which organ systems interact to transport oxygen? (3) – l Which organ systems work together to get nutrients to cells? (3) – l Respiratory, cardiovascular, muscular Digestive, muscular, cardiovascular Which systems allow us to move? (6) – Muscular, skeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive
Equilibrium and Feedback Stability of Living Systems § Equilibrium – balance; stable; all parts function smoothly § Homeostasis – process by which the body’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment (body balance) § Negative Feedback § One way in which living systems maintain internal equilibrium or homeostasis
Keeping Body Temperature Constant § Stay cool – sweating. When you become warm, you perspire. Heat comes from the body out through your sweat § Shivering – muscles in your body contract. This requires energy which generates heat to make the body warm.
Maintaining Glucose Levels in the Blood § Energy comes from the breakdown of the sugar glucose. Glucose comes from the food you eat. After glucose is absorbed by the digestive system, blood transports the glucose and delivers it to cells. § Chemical reactions – regulates the level of glucose in the blood § Hormone – a chemical produced by an endocrine gland that affects the activity of a tissue or organ § Insulin – a hormone that helps regulate glucose levels § Produced in the pancreas
Maintaining Water Equilibrium in Plants Cells § Diffusion – a process where substances move back and forth through the cell membrane o Cell membrane – a thin, flexible structure § Movement of water in cells Ø Osmosis – the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane. o (Selectively permeable allows some things through, but not all. An example is a cell membrane. ) Ø The concentration of water molecules in and out of the cell helps determine whether water enters or leaves a cell.
Turgor Pressure § Turgor pressure – the pressure of water against the cell wall of a plant cell ØGives shape and firmness to plant stems and leaves ØMaintains water balance § Negative feedback in turgor pressure ØTurgor pressure helps keep excess water from entering the plant. ØAn increase in turgor pressure decreases the movement of water molecules into the cell. ØAn increase in water molecules entering the cell eventually causes fewer water molecules to move into the cell.
Water Equilibrium in Animals § Thirsty – animal drinks § Kidneys Øremove wastes; Øadjust amount of water in your blood by changing the concentration of water in the urine they produce
Review l What does equilibrium mean? – l Where is insulin produced? – l Pancreas What does insulin regulate – l Balance Glucose levels (blood sugar) What type of pressure gives shape and firmness to plants? – turgor
Created by: C. Milton, CMS Science l Credits: – l Text: CSCOPE Images: – – – Microsoft Clipart DK Clipart Other images where cited