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Intended Learning Outcomes and Student Assessment Dr. Ahmed-Refat AG Refat FOM-ZU
What are intended learning outcomes? Statements describing what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge, as well as what they feel and believe, as a result of their learning experiences Can be written for a course, a program, or an entire institution
Learning Outcomes Students will DO WHAT (how)
Educational Objectives/ Learning Outcomes Think of the “ideal” students or graduates What students know? >> K l What students can do? ? >> P l What students care about (think)? ? >> A l Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice
ILOs Learning Outcomes: Some Examples
: Communication Learning Outcomes Students communicate well Communication department will provide opportunities for students to develop students’ communication skills Students will communicate effectively Students’ communication skills will gradually improve over several courses Students will be able to communicate information effectively in writing, orally, and graphically
Learning Outcomes: Research Skill Students will design and carry out research Psychology lab should teach students high quality research skill Students have demonstrated high quality research skills Students will independently design and carry out experimental research and evaluate the results critically
Learning Outcomes: Ethics Biology department will teach ethical responsibility to students. Students will be highly ethical Students took a course on ethics Students will understand their ethical responsibility for the field of Bio-medical research
Alignment of Intended Outcomes Design Backward LESSON Deliver Forward U N I T C O U R S E P R O G R A M I N S T I T U T I O N
ILOs: Intended Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes have three distinguishing characteristics: the specified action by the learner must be observable, done observable measurable, and measurable by the learner.
ILOs: Intended Learning Outcomes (Outcome Behaviors): Observable behaviors or actions on the part of students that demonstrate that the intended learning objective has occurred
ILOs: Intended Learning Outcomes
ILOs: Intended Learning Outcomes How to Write Learning Objectives S M A R T
Characteristics of learning outcomes 1. They use verbs that indicate how the student work can be observed. 2. They focus on what the student should do, not what the instructor teaches. 3. They reflect what students should be able to do after a course ends, not simply what they do during the course. 4. can be assessed in more than one way. 5. They can be understood by someone outside the discipline.
ILOs: Intended Learning Outcomes Learning objectives specify both an observable behavior and the object of that behavior. Students will be able to write a research paper. In addition, the criterion could also be specified: Students will be able to write a research paper in the appropriate scientific style.
ILOs: Intended Learning Outcomes Optionally, the condition under which the behavior occurs can be specified: At the end of their field research, students will be able to write a research paper in the appropriate scientific style. Note that the verb you choose will help you focus on what you assess. For example: Students will be able to do research.
By the end of this course, each student will be able to: 1. explain models currently used in health promotion programming; 2. conduct a needs assessment; 3. develop a program rationale; 4. specify how to recruit and select advisory committee members; 5. write program goals and objectives; 6. create a marketing brochure; 7. predict factors that may prevent program success; 8. develop methods to evaluate program success.
Broad: Students will demonstrate knowledge of the history, literature and function of theatre, including works from various periods and cultures. More specific: Students will be able to explain theoretical bases of various dramatic genres and illustrate them with examples from plays of different eras.
Broad: The student will be able to discuss philosophical questions. More specific: The student is able to develop relevant examples and to express the significance of philosophical questions
Broad: Each student will be able to function as a team member. More specific: Each student will reflect upon his or her contributions to a team effort, ability to accept other team members as resources, and willingness to accept compromises if required to achieve a team goal.
Broad: Students will understand how to use technology effectively. More specific: Each student will be able to use word processing, spreadsheets, databases, and presentation graphics in preparing their final research project and report.
assessable learning outcomes: 1. They use verbs that indicate how the student work can be observed. 2. They focus on what the student should do, not what the instructor teaches. 3. They reflect what students should be able to do after a course ends, not simply what they do during the course. 4. They usually can be assessed in more than one way. 5. They can be understood by someone outside the discipline.
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objective
Bloom’s taxonomy of knowledge Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objective Comprehension: Grasping (understanding) the meaning of informational materials. VERBS: classifies; cites; converts; describes; discusses; estimates; explains; generalizes; gives examples; makes sense out of; paraphrases; restates (in own words); summarizes; traces
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objective Knowledge of terminology: specific facts; ways and means of dealing with specifics (conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology); universals and abstractions in a field (principles and generalizations, theories and structures). Knowledge is (here) defined as the remembering (recalling) of appropriate, previously learned information. VERBS: defines; describes; enumerates; identifies; labels; lists; matches; names;
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objective Application: The use of previously learned information in new and concrete situations to solve problems that have single or best answers. l VERBS: acts; administers; assesses; charts; collects; computes; constructs; contributes; controls; determines; develops; discovers; establishes; extends; implements; includes; informs; instructs; operationalizes; participates; predicts; prepares; preserves; produces; projects; provides; relates; reports; shoes; solves; teaches; transfers; uses; utilizes
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objective Analysis: The breaking down of informational materials into their component parts, examining (and trying to understand the organizational structure of) such information to develop divergent conclusions by identifying motives or causes, making inferences, and/or finding evidence to support generalizations. VERBS: breaks down; correlates; diagrams; differentiates; discriminates; distinguishes; focuses;
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objective Synthesis: Creatively or divergently applying prior knowledge and skills to produce a new or original whole. VERBS: adapts; anticipates; categorizes; collaborates; combines; communicates; compares; compiles; composes; contrasts; creates; designs; devises; expresses; facilitates; formulates; generates; incorporates; individualizes; initiates; integrates; intervenes; models; modifies; negotiates; plans; progresses; rearranges; reconstructs; reinforces; reorganizes; revises; structures; substitutes; validates
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objective Evaluation: Judging the value of the material based on personal values/opinions, resulting in an end product, with a given purpose, without real right or wrong answers. VERBS: appraises; compares & contrasts; criticizes; critiques; decides; defends; interprets; judges; justifies; reframes; supports
Terms for Asking & answering questions your life depends on your power to master words
Compare: Examine qualities, or characteristics, to discover resemblances. "Compare" is usually stated as "compare with": you are to emphasize similarities, although differences may be mentioned. Contrast: Stress dissimilarities, differences, or unlikeness of things, qualities, events, or problems.
Criticize: Express your judgment or correctness or merit. Discuss the limitations and good points or contributions of the plan or work in question. Define: Definitions call for concise, clear, authoritative meanings. Details are not required but limitations of the definition should be briefly cited. You must keep in mind the class to which a thing belongs and whatever differentiates the particular object from all others in the class.
Describe: In a descriptive answer you should recount, characterize, sketch or relate in narrative form. Diagram: For a question which specifies a diagram you should present a drawing, chart, plan, or graphic representation in your answer. Generally you are expected to label the diagram and in some cases add a brief explanation or
Discuss: The term discuss, which appears often in essay questions, directs you to examine, analyze carefully, and present considerations pro and con regarding the problems or items involved. This type of question calls for a complete and entailed answer. Enumerate: The word enumerate specifies a list or outline form of reply. In such questions you should recount, one by one, in concise form, the points required.
Evaluate: In an evaluation question you are expected to present a careful appraisal of the problem stressing both advantages and limitations. Evaluation implies authoritative and, to a lesser degree, personal appraisal of both contributions and limitations. Explain: In explanatory answers it is imperative that you clarify and interpret the material you present. In such an answer it is best to state the "how or why, " reconcile any differences in opinion or experimental results, and, where possible, state causes. The aim is to make plain the conditions which give rise to whatever you are examining.
Illustrate: A question which asks you to illustrate usually requires you to explain or clarify your answer to the problem by presenting a figure, picture, diagram, or concrete example. Interpret: An interpretation question is similar to one requiring explanation. You are expected to translate, exemplify, solve, or comment upon the subject and usually to give your judgment or reaction to the problem. Justify: When you are instructed to justify your answer you must prove or show grounds for decisions. In such an answer, evidence
List: Listing is similar to enumeration. You are expected in such questions to present an itemized series or tabulation. Such answers should always be given in concise form. Outline: An outline answer is organized description. You should give main points and essential supplementary materials, omitting minor details, and present the information in a systematic arrangement or classification.
Prove: A question which requires proof is one which demands confirmation or verification. In such discussions you should establish something with certainty by evaluating and citing experimental evidence or by logical reasoning. Relate: In a question which asks you to show the relationship or to relate, your answer should emphasize connections and associations in descriptive form.
Review: A review specifies a critical examination. You should analyze and comment briefly in organized sequence upon the major points of the problem. State: In questions which direct you to specify, give, state, or present, you are called upon to express the high points in brief, clear narrative form. Details, and usually illustrations or examples, may be omitted.
Summarize: When you are asked to summarize or present a summarization, you should give in condensed form the main points or facts. All details, illustrations and elaboration are to be omitted.