- Slides: 13
INTELLIGENCE EXTREMES AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
EXTREMES OF INTELLIGENCE
CAUSES OF RETARDATION • • • Many times cause is unknown Organic retardation • • results from genetic problems or brain damage Chromosomal factors: Down’s syndrome Cultural-familial retardation • results from a greatly impoverished environment. • • • Injury before, during, after birth Poisonous substances: lead, carbon monoxide Malnutrition Disease: Measles Theory about Autism: vaccinations around 18 months
SUPERIOR INTELLIGENCE • • • Moderately gifted • usually defined by an IQ score between 130 and 150 Profoundly gifted • usually defined by an IQ score around 180 or above Prodigies • Display a mastery in a particular area at a young age, “normal” in other areas • • Rarely excel in more than one area Galileo math invented the pendulum at age 17 Mozart played piano at 3, composed at 4 Savants • Gifted in one area but mentally challenged in all others
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GIFTED • Lewis Terman’s Study of the Gifted • Studied 1528 superior individuals in California • Flaw? ? • Findings: • Read before enter school • ¾ in 8 th grade score on achievement tests equal to 12 th graders • Leaders in school • Not as self-centered as other students • Interested in the problems of society • Develop early career plans
INTELLIGENCE: NATURE OR NURTURE? • Twin studies • • • Identical & fraternal Twins reared apart Adoption studies • More like biological parents or adoptive parents?
INTERACTION: NATURE & NURTURE • Heritability • number that indicates the amount or proportion of some ability, characteristic, or trait that can be attributed to genetic factors (nature) • Reaction range • indicates the extent to which traits, abilities, or IQ scores may increase or decrease as a result of interaction with environmental factors
GROUP DIFFERENCES IN INTELLIGENCE TEST SCORES • The Bell curve is different for Whites v. Black. • Math scores are different across genders and the highest scores are for Asian males. Why? Nature or Nurture
TEST BIAS? Tests do discriminate. But some argue that there sole purpose is to discriminate. We have to look at the type of discrimination.
TEST-TAKERS’ EXPECTATIONS • Stereotype threat - a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. • Blacks score higher when tested by blacks than when tested by whites • Women score better in math when told women score well on this test