Intelligence Chapter 7 Copyright Allyn Bacon 2006 Nature

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Intelligence Chapter 7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Intelligence Chapter 7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Nature of Intelligence: • ability to understand complex ideas • adapt effectively to the

Nature of Intelligence: • ability to understand complex ideas • adapt effectively to the environment, • learn from experience, • use reasoning to overcome problems Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Nature of Intelligence • Spearman: intelligence is made up of a general ability, or

Nature of Intelligence • Spearman: intelligence is made up of a general ability, or g factor. • This underlies all intellectual functions. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Spearman & General Intelligence cont. • Some subtests were much higher than others •

Spearman & General Intelligence cont. • Some subtests were much higher than others • So abilities beyond the g factor were effecting these subtests. • These abilities he named ………. . s factors for specific abilities. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Spearman & General Intelligence cont. • Intelligence tests tap the g & s factors.

Spearman & General Intelligence cont. • Intelligence tests tap the g & s factors. • The g factor is the best measures of intelligence, & in predicting success in social, educational, and occupational areas. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Thurstone’s 7 Primary Mental Abilities • Thurstone rejected Spearman. • Looking at 56 separate

Thurstone’s 7 Primary Mental Abilities • Thurstone rejected Spearman. • Looking at 56 separate tests… • He identified seven primary mental abilities: verbal comprehension, numerical ability, spatial relations, perceptual speed, word fluency, memory, and reasoning. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences…denies the existence of a g factor. • He proposes

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences…denies the existence of a g factor. • He proposes eight independent forms of intelligence, or frames of mind. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Nature of Intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence • there are three types of

Nature of Intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence • there are three types of intelligence – componential (analytical), experiential (creative), and contextual (practical). • Sternberg claims IQ tests measure only analytical, intelligence. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence Binet and the First Successful Intelligence Test • Alfred Binet tested children

Measuring Intelligence Binet and the First Successful Intelligence Test • Alfred Binet tested children in Paris in 1904 for intelligence levels. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence Binet believed mental retardation and mental superiority are the difference between chronological

Measuring Intelligence Binet believed mental retardation and mental superiority are the difference between chronological age (actual age in years) and mental age. • Children with a mental age 2 years below their chronological age were retarded and should be placed in special ed. classes. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale cont. • IQ test for those aged 2 to

Measuring Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale cont. • IQ test for those aged 2 to 23. • Has four subscales: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract visual reasoning, and short-term memory. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (cont. ) • Intelligence quotient (IQ): derived by comparing

Measuring Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (cont. ) • Intelligence quotient (IQ): derived by comparing an individual’s score with the scores of others of the same age. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence The Wechsler Intelligence Tests • Wechsler gave us the Deviation Score: found

Measuring Intelligence The Wechsler Intelligence Tests • Wechsler gave us the Deviation Score: found by comparing a person’s score with others of the same age on whom the test was normed. • 1 st successful intelligence test for adults, 16 & older. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence The Wechsler Intelligence Tests… • Has verbal & performance IQ scores •

Measuring Intelligence The Wechsler Intelligence Tests… • Has verbal & performance IQ scores • as well as an overall IQ score. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence • Differences in verbal & performance subtests are used for diagnoses. •

Measuring Intelligence • Differences in verbal & performance subtests are used for diagnoses. • Dif. In VIQ & PIQ also uses for dx. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence Reliability, Validity • Reliability: a test yields nearly the same score when

Measuring Intelligence Reliability, Validity • Reliability: a test yields nearly the same score when people are tested & retested. • Validity: a test measures what it is intended to. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Measuring Intelligence Standardization: The process of establishing norms for interpreting scores… & procedures for

Measuring Intelligence Standardization: The process of establishing norms for interpreting scores… & procedures for giving the test. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The Range of Intelligence Who Are the Gifted? • intellectually superior, IQs in the

The Range of Intelligence Who Are the Gifted? • intellectually superior, IQs in the upper 23%. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The Range of Intelligence Giftedness (continued) • Gifted programs usually involve: • Acceleration go

The Range of Intelligence Giftedness (continued) • Gifted programs usually involve: • Acceleration go at a rate consistent with ability. • Enrichment broadens by giving special courses & experiences. In foreign languages, music appreciation, sciences etc. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The Range of Intelligence The Dx. Of Mental Retardation: IQ score below 70 AND

The Range of Intelligence The Dx. Of Mental Retardation: IQ score below 70 AND severe deficiency in daily adaptive functioning – ability to care for themselves AND relate to others. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The IQ Controversy The Abuses of Intelligence Tests • IQ tests do not measure

The IQ Controversy The Abuses of Intelligence Tests • IQ tests do not measure attitude & motivation, critical ingredients of success. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The IQ Nature-Nurture Controversy • Is intelligence primarily the result of heredity (nature) or

The IQ Nature-Nurture Controversy • Is intelligence primarily the result of heredity (nature) or the environment (nurture). • Heritability: degree to which a trait is related to heredity. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The IQ Controversy The Heritability of Intelligence (cont. ) • Twin studies yield heritability

The IQ Controversy The Heritability of Intelligence (cont. ) • Twin studies yield heritability estimates of. 60 to. 70 for intelligence. • Adoption study method: study the effects of heredity and environment on children adopted shortly after birth by comparing them with their biological and adoptive parents. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The IQ Controversy The Heritability of Intelligence (continued) • parents involvement (nurture) affect a

The IQ Controversy The Heritability of Intelligence (continued) • parents involvement (nurture) affect a child’s rate of getting mental skills, but have little influence on the ultimate level. • research shows the importance of genes (nature) in determining intelligence. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The IQ Controversy Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable? • IQ scores of identical twins reared

The IQ Controversy Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable? • IQ scores of identical twins reared apart supports the strong influence of genetics. • We don’t inherit a specific IQ score, but genes set a range of possible performance levels, called the reaction range. • Environments determine where we end up within that range. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

The IQ Controversy Adoption Studies • IQ scores of adopted children resemble those of

The IQ Controversy Adoption Studies • IQ scores of adopted children resemble those of their biological parents more than the adopted families. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Emotional Intelligence • Awareness of & an ability to manage one’s own emotions. •

Emotional Intelligence • Awareness of & an ability to manage one’s own emotions. • A ability to motivate oneself. • Empathy • Ability to handle relationships well. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Emotional Intelligence • is unrelated to IQ. • High EQ scores can predict academic

Emotional Intelligence • is unrelated to IQ. • High EQ scores can predict academic & social success. • Those high in emotional intelligence often emerge as leaders. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Emotional Intelligence • Self-motivation emotional self-control. A person can get moving & pursue goals…

Emotional Intelligence • Self-motivation emotional self-control. A person can get moving & pursue goals… • Persist even when frustrated… • Resists temptation to act on impulse. • Of all the attributes of emotional intelligence, the ability to postpone immediate gratification and to persist in working toward some greater future gain is most closely related to success. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Empathy Sensitivity to the needs & feelings of others. A higher level of development

Empathy Sensitivity to the needs & feelings of others. A higher level of development that springs from… ……self-awareness. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Two parts of EI that are… Prerequisites for handling relationships: (1)the ability to manage

Two parts of EI that are… Prerequisites for handling relationships: (1)the ability to manage one’s own emotions. (2)empathy. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Exam #3 Chapters 5 & 7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Exam #3 Chapters 5 & 7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006