Integumentary System Wellness and Illness Wellness and Illness

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Integumentary System Wellness and Illness

Integumentary System Wellness and Illness

Wellness and Illness The integumentary system is subject to: • degenerative disorders • genetic

Wellness and Illness The integumentary system is subject to: • degenerative disorders • genetic disorders • infectious diseases

Wellness and Illness degenerative disorders are due to: • progressive deterioration of tissue caused

Wellness and Illness degenerative disorders are due to: • progressive deterioration of tissue caused by continuous injury from environmental stress and/or physical stress

Wellness and Illness genetic disorders are due to: • the result of mutations that

Wellness and Illness genetic disorders are due to: • the result of mutations that alter skin structure and diminish skin function

Wellness and Illness infectious diseases are due to: • microorganisms that damage tissues and

Wellness and Illness infectious diseases are due to: • microorganisms that damage tissues and organs

Degenerative Skin Disorders freckles • most are genetic – not considered a disorder •

Degenerative Skin Disorders freckles • most are genetic – not considered a disorder • sun exposure can darken freckles • solar lentigene – all over the body – 30 somethings who overexpose their skin to sunlight or tanning beds – prevent with strong sunblock – can be removed by laser treatment

Degenerative Skin Disorders cosmetics • most common source of degenerative skin disorders • many

Degenerative Skin Disorders cosmetics • most common source of degenerative skin disorders • many of the products cause mild dermatitis – inflammation of the skin caused by allergic reaction or contact with irritant – itching – redness – swelling

Degenerative Skin Disorders • facial cleansers and toners produce scaling skin and accelerate skin

Degenerative Skin Disorders • facial cleansers and toners produce scaling skin and accelerate skin aging

Degenerative Skin Disorders skin cancer • although degenerative, has an underlying genetic connection =

Degenerative Skin Disorders skin cancer • although degenerative, has an underlying genetic connection = precancerous genes • if damaged by sunlight, or certain chemicals, precancerous genes promote abnormal cell division in the affected skin cells • common type – start as irregularly shaped brown or black spots → open sores

Degenerative Skin Disorders other skin cancers • injury deep within the skin • first

Degenerative Skin Disorders other skin cancers • injury deep within the skin • first appear as discolored blisters or sores • erode the skin and spread to other parts of the body Skin cancers can be fatal if not treated

Degenerative Skin Disorders tumors • moles – flat, squamous-cell tumors that are heavily pigmented

Degenerative Skin Disorders tumors • moles – flat, squamous-cell tumors that are heavily pigmented by melanocytes – possible origin may be genetic damage to skin; if so = most likely → cancer • skin tags – soft, colored, knob-shaped tumors that grow out of the skin – appear on the neck, in the armpits – removed by minor surgery

Degenerative Skin Disorders tumors • seborrhoeic keratosis – black or brown growth on face

Degenerative Skin Disorders tumors • seborrhoeic keratosis – black or brown growth on face or body – creates a greasy, rough appearance on skin • sebaceous hyperplasia – masses of cells developed by oil glands – appear as small, yellow bumps with an opening in the center – removed by simple surgery

Degenerative Skin Disorders tumors • syringomas – formed by sweat glands – painless growths

Degenerative Skin Disorders tumors • syringomas – formed by sweat glands – painless growths – appear as small lumps on the cheeks and eyelids • lipomas – raised tumors formed by fat cells underneath the skin – usually don’t go away – problematic if they occur around the mouth or impede movement

Genetic Skin Disorders acne • most common skin disorder thought to have a genetic

Genetic Skin Disorders acne • most common skin disorder thought to have a genetic connection • overproduction of sebum due to hormonal changes • in teenagers after puberty, and women undergoing hormone changes (pregnancy/menopause) – – – blackheads pimples red spots whiteheads lesions called cysts/nodules

Genetic Skin Disorders cysts/nodules – deep in the skin – saclike structure swollen with

Genetic Skin Disorders cysts/nodules – deep in the skin – saclike structure swollen with liquid or semisolid substance furuncle – inflammation of a hair follicle that leads to a buildup of dead cells and blood components acne is aggravated by skin bacteria that feed on the sebum and decaying cells – the bacteria produce irritating waste products

Genetic Skin Disorders treatment – mild cases = soaps that: • open he cysts

Genetic Skin Disorders treatment – mild cases = soaps that: • open he cysts • remove some of the bacteria • remove the excess sebum – severe cases = drugs • antibiotics – kill bacteria • isotretinoin – shed sebum filled cysts

Genetic Skin Disorders psoriasis • due to an increase in the amount of skin

Genetic Skin Disorders psoriasis • due to an increase in the amount of skin cells produced • build up of thick scales appearing on the skin • inflammatory = skin is: – – painful red swollen Warm Why? The skin is trying to protect the affected area from disease or injury

Genetic Skin Disorders • skin is dry, itchy • hair loss can occur if

Genetic Skin Disorders • skin is dry, itchy • hair loss can occur if psoriasis affects hairy parts of the body • scientists know a gene exists that is activated by certain environmental conditions and infectious diseases • treatment = drugs – reduce swelling – slow skin production

Genetic Skin Disorders birthmarks (that can affect the skin) 1) port wine stains 2)

Genetic Skin Disorders birthmarks (that can affect the skin) 1) port wine stains 2) spider veins 3) strawberry hemangiomas • port wine stain – as named, appears like a spot of red wine spilled on the skin – abnormality of skin blood vessels – anywhere – begins at birth, grows larger and darker – larger examples can bleed as the skin cracks

Genetic Skin Disorders • spider veins – enlarged skin blood vessels – large central

Genetic Skin Disorders • spider veins – enlarged skin blood vessels – large central vessels with smaller vessels branching out = name – no problems – unattractive

Genetic Skin Disorders • strawberry hemangiomas – enlarged skin blood vessels – grow rapidly

Genetic Skin Disorders • strawberry hemangiomas – enlarged skin blood vessels – grow rapidly after birth – lighten in color for many by age 6 – problems arise form excessive bleeding, or if located near the eyes or mouth

Genetic Skin Disorders • vitiligo

Genetic Skin Disorders • vitiligo

Genetic Skin Disorders vitiligo vs albinism

Genetic Skin Disorders vitiligo vs albinism

Genetic Skin Disorders melasma • brown patches on the face • symmetrical • darkened

Genetic Skin Disorders melasma • brown patches on the face • symmetrical • darkened by sunlight • caused by female hormonal changes = appearance in pregnant women and women who take oral contraceptives

Infectious Disorders Beneficial bacteria and fungi can cause skin infections. In most cases the

Infectious Disorders Beneficial bacteria and fungi can cause skin infections. In most cases the infections are mild and treatable, unless they breach the skin. danger = enter deeper tissues and blood The population of microorganisms on the skin can be altered → environment for disease causing bacteria. This occurs commonly when skin is washed frequently, or remains wet for a long time

Infectious Disorders most common bacterial skin infections • Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) – produces

Infectious Disorders most common bacterial skin infections • Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) – produces secretions that erode and inflame skin 4 most common conditions: 1) folliculitis – inflammation of hair follicle 2) impetigo – easily spread rash on children 3) boils - furuncle 4) staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) – potentially fatal shedding and swelling of skin

folliculitis impetigo boil/furuncle SSSS

folliculitis impetigo boil/furuncle SSSS

Infectious Disorders monilia • fungal infection caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans) – a

Infectious Disorders monilia • fungal infection caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans) – a beneficial yeast in the female digestive system and reproductive system – spreads to the skin and nails when the immune system is weakened – the fungi breakdown the tissue causing mild to severe inflammation

Infectious Disorders dermatophytes • other fungi • eat keratin-rich materials = hair, nails, outer

Infectious Disorders dermatophytes • other fungi • eat keratin-rich materials = hair, nails, outer layers of the epidermis • easily spread • causes itching, hair loss, deformation of nails • ringworm – tinea = common example – contracted from furry pets – spread person to person by contact with clothing and skin – related to “athlete’s foot”/”jock itch”

Infectious Disorders warts • caused by virus • ~60 different types • commonly caused

Infectious Disorders warts • caused by virus • ~60 different types • commonly caused by human papilloma virus (HPV)

Infectious Disorders other “critters” • protists – mostly involved with exotic diseases spread by

Infectious Disorders other “critters” • protists – mostly involved with exotic diseases spread by insect bites → internal organs = severe bodily damage • arthropods – demodex/follicle mite causes inflammation of the eyelash follicles • lice – blood sucking – irritate skin – spread infection/spread disease

Aging of the Integumentary System Skin has extrinsic aging factors and intrinsic aging factors

Aging of the Integumentary System Skin has extrinsic aging factors and intrinsic aging factors extrinsic = external • environmental factors: – disease – pollution – sun exposure – etc.

Aging of the Integumentary System intrinsic = internal • genetic factors • natural maturation

Aging of the Integumentary System intrinsic = internal • genetic factors • natural maturation factors Intrinsic aging can be accelerated by stress from pathology of other organ systems or unusual enviromic interactions

Gross Anatomical Changes of Aging • loss of head hair • graying/whitening hair •

Gross Anatomical Changes of Aging • loss of head hair • graying/whitening hair • excessive growth of body and facial hair • drying of the skin – diminished oil secretion • decreased ability to sweat • thinning of skin • loss of melanin → transparent skin • loss of subcutaneous fat • wrinkling • skin stretching due to connective tissue changes in the dermis • skin stretching due to gravity pulling on skin • thinning of nail plate • increased probability of skin tumors • prolonged wound healing – diminished blood flow/suppressed immune system • regular irritations – changes in microbial populations

Aging of the Integumentary System Intrinsic aging is impossible to stop Why? Natural decline

Aging of the Integumentary System Intrinsic aging is impossible to stop Why? Natural decline of cells in connective issue and muscle is uncontrollable BUT. . decline is slowed by living in a climate that does not have extreme cold or extreme heat

Aging of the Integumentary System Connective tissues of the dermis and subcutaneous layers naturally

Aging of the Integumentary System Connective tissues of the dermis and subcutaneous layers naturally reduce elastin production, and become dominated by collagen and reticular fibers → • less flexible skin • thinner skin • more brittle skin As collagen and elastin degenerate → • lines • creases • wrinkles • furrows • folds

Aging of the Integumentary System One treatment that does seem to remove wrinkling due

Aging of the Integumentary System One treatment that does seem to remove wrinkling due to aging = skin needling

Aging of the Integumentary System Decreased blood flow to the skin slows stratum germinativum

Aging of the Integumentary System Decreased blood flow to the skin slows stratum germinativum → • thinning epidermis • difficult to repair skin damage People with diseases that affect blood vessels show premature aging of the skin

Aging of the Integumentary System melanocyte decline is natural loss of many nerves in

Aging of the Integumentary System melanocyte decline is natural loss of many nerves in the skin → more susceptile to damage older skin doesn’t register injury as well

Aging of the Integumentary System DNA damage in the skin • constant exposure to

Aging of the Integumentary System DNA damage in the skin • constant exposure to oxidizing chemicals and sunlight • causes abnormalities like cancers and tumors • occurs naturally during the S phase of mitosis, which occurs at an ↑ rate in the epidermis • telomere shortening

Aging of the Integumentary System Strategies to reduce aging focus on extrinsic aging factors

Aging of the Integumentary System Strategies to reduce aging focus on extrinsic aging factors • proper diet • reduced exposure to sunlight * • avoiding skin irritantion • protecting the skin from pollutants • not smoking * * biggest factors to slow aging

Aging of the Integumentary System Why is smoking so bad? • reduces blood flow

Aging of the Integumentary System Why is smoking so bad? • reduces blood flow to skin – impedes growth and repair – affects temperature regulation → susceptible to damage form extreme hot and cold • oxidizing chemicals are introduced into the skin

Wasn’t that Sun fun?

Wasn’t that Sun fun?

Not Just A Mole, Much Worse

Not Just A Mole, Much Worse

melanomas normal moles

melanomas normal moles

moderate lipoma

moderate lipoma

unusual lipoma

unusual lipoma

extreme lipoma

extreme lipoma