INTEGRATED PLANT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PARVIZ KOOHAFKAN, Land Water Development Division FAO, Rome
Challenges for agriculture today and in the next 25 years: l To meet the food needs of today’s 700 million hungry people and of 2, 3 billion additional people l To maintain sustainability of resources base and global environment for present and future generations l To contribute to economic growth, social welfare, income generation and employment, particularly in rural areas both in developed and developing countries.
Challenges for agriculture today and in the next 25 years: World cereal production need to increase by 2. 6 billion tons, a global raise of 56%, to be produced mostly in developing countries, l This food has to be produced from current agricultural lands and less water as: – land degradation and desrtification are global problems and any further agricultural expansion into marginal lands would cause unacceptable environmental damage, – water availability and their quality are rapidly shrinking in many countries and there is a real need to produce “more crop per drop” l
FAO’S definition of Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development(SARD) The management and conservation of natural resources, and the orientation of technological and institutional changes in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations, l Such sustainable agriculture conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources and is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable, l
Sustainable Agriculture is not: Low input mining agriculture practiced in many developing countries, nor the organic agriculture becoming popular in developed counties, l Sustainable agriculture is a multi-input and multi-output agriculture which provides environmental, social and economical goods and services for present and future generations in addition to food and non food products l
FAO strategic framework 2000 -2015 l l l A) Contribution to eradication of food insecurity and poverty B) Promotion of enabling policies and regulatory frameworks for sustainable agriculture, fisheries and forestry C) Creating sustainable increase in supply of food and other agriculture, forestry and fisheries products D) Supporting integrated management and sustainable use of natural resources E) information and knowledge management
Soil fertility restoration Economic growth Food security Environmental Rehabilitation
Examples of FAO programmes for sustainable Agriculture: l. Special Programme For Food Security (SPFS) l. Integrated Plant Nutrition System(IPNS) l Soil Fertility Initiative(SFI) l. Input Supply Strategy For Sub-Saharan Africa
SPFS: Status of Implementation
FAO’s IPNS APPROACH What is IPNS? Integrated plant nutrition systems (IPNS) is a holistic approach in which plant nutrition is ensured by the combined use of locally available and accessible sources of both organic and mineral origin, adapted to a specific farming system characterized in terms of yield targets, physical resources and the socio-economic condition of farmer. Main Objectives • To maintain and enhance soil productivity through a balanced use of mineral fertilizers combined with organic and biological sources of plant nutrients • To improve and maintain the stock of plant nutrients and biological interactions in the soil system • To improve the efficiency of plant nutrients, thus limiting losses to the environment
Fertilizer nitrogen consumption and their equivalent in manure in the world, The Netherlands, and Nigeria * 2 t/head/year of dung for Nigeria and World; and 22 t/head/year of dung for Netherlands
THE FOCUS The cropping system rather than the individual crop Plot level Activities aim at demonstrating in farmers field, the direct and residual effects of various plant nutrition management treatments, such as different application rates of plant nutrients from inorganic, organic and biological sources. Farm level Activities aim at up-scaling and spreading in time and in space the suitable “mix ” of various options tested at plot level to fit the farmer’s production objectives, his budget and available labour. The Participatory Approach is a key tool and the factor of success. Village level Activities aim at (i) the management of common sources of plant nutrients such as forest litter, lopping of trees and grazing on common land; (ii) transfer of nutrients from these common sources to the farm; and (iii) the creation of farmers’ groups to facilitate group purchase of inputs, access to credit and markets.
IPNS is facilitated by a triangular alliance Input & Service Sector to Agriculture Farmers’ Associations Government Agencies and NGOs Assisted by FAO
Optimizing multiple objectives in synergy: improvement in household food security and income; l Restoration of soil fertility and enhancement, l land water conservation and improvement; l carbon sequestration and mitigation of climate change effects; l biodiversity conservation above and below ground in its all aspects. l
Farmers Moisture and water Crop Management Agro-ecological Zone Soil Biota Land Use Systems Soil Productivity Soil management& conservation Organic Matter Soil fertility Carbon Stock & Carbon Sequestration Agro. Biodiversity Food Security
FOCUS ON SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Challenges for Sub-Saharan agriculture today and in the next 25 years: l Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) needs to grow by more than 4% per year to feed its present and growing population. l agricultural production per capita has stagnated or even declined in most Sub-Saharan African countries. l There have been major efforts toward creating a conducive environment for growth, through policy reforms, infrastructure development and improved agricultural services.
FAO study of plant nutrient depletion in Sub-Saharan African shows: The total nutrient inputs minus total food and non food output at farm and national level are negative in each African country so the inherent soil fertility is being mined. l Organic matter and crop residues and animal manure are mostly used as fodder and domestic fuel. l The average mineral fertilizer use In many African countrie is less than 10 kg of nutrients per hectare, as compared to nearly 100 kg world wide l
The Soil Fertility Initiative for sub-Saharan Africa
Soil Fertility Initiative(SFI) l Soil Fertility Initiative (SFI) was launched during the World Food Summit in 1996, l SFI is a part of a broader agenda for food security, with links to the environmental agenda, including aspects of carbon sequestration. l The Initiative is an iterative process that increases the synergy among different activities in soil fertility restoration and management as well as the conservation of natural resource base.
Principles of SFI Government actions and policy reforms are essential for successful land productivity improvement, l Enabling policies and infrastructure are needed to remove market, economic, institutional and legal constraints, l International negotiations on issues such as terms of trade, liberalization, and the terms and conditions of loans should lead to a positive impact on the economic and policy environment for agriculture and market development l
Principles of SFI Participating countries are comitted to prepare National Action Plans which are Participatory, bottom-up, and tailored around specific socioeconomic and ecological environment. l Action plans follow IPNS approach and other innovative approaches l Action Plans serve as a basis for mobilizing the necessary human, institutional and financial resources. l
SFI: Status of Implementation under formulation NAP prepared
Agricultural Input Supply Strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa
Constraints to agricultural sector development in Sub-Saharan Africa l Producer incentives (economic and social) l Limitation of natural resource base l Access to: – technology – input and output price stability – input markets – product markets
Overcoming these constraints through: l sound macro-economic policies l proper planning and management of natural resources l maximizing reliance of farmers on initiative of the private sector
Factors affecting agricultural input (fertilizers) use l Price factors – output prices – fertilizer price fluctuation – subsidies l Non price factors – information – legislation – access to land – marketing – transport + storage – training – technical advice – credit
Examples of FAO experience with private sector for input supply l Establishment of Italian Private Sector Committee (IPSC) – five target countries with political stability for investment, education and training – study tour with private sector in Tanzania for potential demand of various forms of farm inputs to assist in restructuring input distribution & agribusiness system – similar ventures in other African countries under preparation
Zambia Pilot input supply mechanism in dambo’s partnership between Government, private sector and farmers l l l Working with selected Water Users Association groups Training on impact of improved seeds, fertilizer use and irrigation techniques Group responsibility for distribution, selection of farmers for account keeping Provision of credit for seeds and fertilizers Technical assistance provided by extension staff with particiation of retailers
Ethiopia pilot scheme lall inputs, training, advise, credit “under one roof” l. Input strategy considers including all inputs, which result in more viable business( fertilizer and seeds are tied to seasonal peaks) l. Particular attention given to manufacture of tools for women
Conclusions l Investing in Soil fertilty and IPNS is important for humanity and is good buisness for private sector, l IPNS and SFI are partnership between farmers, their organisations, governments, donors, development agencies, and centres of excellence, and hopefully more with private sector,
Conclusions l FAO and its partners have cost - effective methods, institutional memory, expertise in developing countries and comparative advantages to implement soil fertility programmes and are eager to do the job in partnership with private sector, l FAO and private sector can develop partnership and provide trainig, extension and support services for programmes aiming at restoration of soil fertility and land productivity
Natural Capital Social Capita l Human Capital Economic Capital fluid cooperation, confidence in future economic opportunity, positive anticipation Landscape diversification Environmental and ecological rehabilitation integration of the economy, resilience Food security Risk reduction diver sity in diet Diversification of agriculture Economic networks and market linkages