Instruments of an orchestra. Symphony orchestra.
Brief history. First orchestras appeared many yeas ago. They were made up of small groups of musicians that gathered for festivals, holidays or funerals. There were approximately twenty musicians that Bach had at his disposal and about thirty in Mozart's time. The modern orchestra may call for more than a hundred players. These musicians give their full time to rehearsals and performance, achieving a precision of ensemble playing unknown in former times.
Types of orchestras are: Symphony Wind Orchestra Folk music instruments Chamber
Symphony orchestra. The orchestra is constituted with a view to securing the best balance of tone. The performers are divided into four sections: the woodwinds, the brass, percussion, and the strings. Approximately two- thirds are strings players. From three to five men take care of the percussion. The rest part is the woodwinds and brass. The following distribution is typical of our largest orchestras.
The Strings There about 65 stringed instruments: 34 violins which are divided into two groups, first and second (18 first and 16 second violins) 12 violas, 10 violoncellos, 10 double basses.
The woodwinds There about 15 woodwind instruments: 3 flutes, 1 piccolo, 3 oboes, 1 English horn, 3 clarinets, 3 bassoons, 1 double bassoon.
The Brass There about 11 brass instruments : 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 tuba.
Percussion There about 5 percussion players: 2 kettle drums players, 3 men for brass and side drum, glockenspiel, celesta, xylophone, triangle, cymbals, tambourine, etc.
Additional instruments. Certain works call for a larger brass section with additional horns and an extra trumpet or saxophone. Included in the ensemble are also two harps and, for certain contemporary scores, a piano.
The leader of any orchestra. The instruments are arranged as to secure effective blending and contrast. The softer ones are placed in front, the louder sit further back. The ensemble is directed by the conductor, who beats time and indicates the entrances of the various instruments, the shading in the volume of tune, the principal and subordinate lines, and a host of related details that serve to make clear the structure of the work. It is the conductor`s task to bring the ensemble to life and to mold the group into a perfectly coordinated body
The score The conductor has before him the score of the work. All parts of (entrances of) the instruments are included in the conductor`s score. This consists of from a few to as many as twenty-five or more lines, each representing an instrumental part. All the staves together comprise a single composite line. What is going on at any moment in the orchestra is indicated at any given point straight down the page. •
Top 20 symphony orchestras. (http: //classicalmusic. about. com) 1. Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam 2. Berlin Philharmonic 3. Vienna Philharmonic 4. London Symphony Orchestra 5. Chicago Symphony Orchestra 6. Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra 7. Cleveland Orchestra 8. Los Angeles Philharmonic 9. Budapest Festival Orchestra 10. Dresden Staatskapelle 11. Boston Symphony Orchestra 12. New York Philharmonic 13. San Francisco Symphony 14. Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra 15. Russian National Orchestra 16. Leningrad Philharmonic 17. Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra 18. Metropolitan Opera Orchestra 19. Saito Kinen Orchestra 20. Czech Philharmonic
Answer these questions. 1)How many players are there in the modern orchestras? 2) What types of orchestras do you know? 3) What sections is symphony orchestra made up? 4) Which section is largest? 5) What instruments form the strings? Name them and their quantity. 6) What instruments form the woodwinds? Name them and their quantity. 7) What instruments form the brass? Name them and their quantity. 8) What instruments form the percussion? Name them and their quantity. 9) What instruments can be added? 10) What is the main principle of instruments location in an orchestra? 11) Who rules the orchestra? 12) What does include the conductor`s score? 13) What world famous orchestras do you know? 14) Have you ever played in the orchestra? Tell about your experience.
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