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Purpose of presentation/agenda
What is a Mosquito? Mosquitos are: • Small, midge-like flies • Feed on blood of mammals • Disease transmission makes them the deadliest organism on earth
Mosquito Life Cycle • There are four stages in the mosquito life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, adult • Egg to adult is about 7 -10 days Image courtesy of: https: //www. cdc. gov/dengue/entomologyecolog/m_lifecycle. html
Mosquito Life Cycle: Larva • The hatched larva lives in the water • Some species can attach to plants found in water, using the plant to access air to breathe. • The larva will shed its skin four times before becoming a mosquito pupa • This is a feeding stage for the mosquito • Eat algae, filter feed bacteria ©Photo courtesy of WHO/J. Gusmao
Mosquito Life Cycle: Pupa • Mosquito pupae also known as "tumblers” • Pupa do not eat Image courtesy of: https: //www. cdc. gov/zika/pdfs/mosquitolifecycle. pdf
Mosquito Life Cycle: Adult • Adults rise up from the water and fly away looking for their first meal and to mate. • Female mosquitoes bite • In the nature females can live 1 -2 weeks, but varies between species
Mosquito: Health Concerns • Use this area to convey health concerns related to mosquitos found in your area I. e. diseases spread by mosquitos include… Image courtesy of: The World Health Organization
Prevention: Inside • Use screens on windows and doors. Repair holes in screens to keep mosquitoes outside. • Use air conditioning when available. • Sleep under a mosquito bed net
Prevention: Removing Habitats • Remove standing water in gutters, abandoned tires, buckets, toys or any container that accumulates water, tree holes, and ditches • Frequently change the water in bird baths, fountains, wading pools, and potted plant trays, animal drinking bowls • Keep swimming pool water treated and circulating. ©Photo courtesy of https: //www. cdc. gov/zika/pdfs/zika-zapwebinar-5 -17 -
Personal Protection: Repellants • Insert wanted text from infographic here
Personal Protection: Babies and Children • Do not use insect repellent on babies younger than 2 months old • Do not apply insect repellent onto a child’s hands, eyes, mouth, cuts or irritated skin. • Adults should spray insect repellent onto hands and then apply to a child’s face.
Personal Protection: Clothing • Wear long sleeve shirts, long pants, socks, and closed-toe shoes • Treated clothes may protect you after multiple washings. Do not use permethrin directly on skin.
Rodents Photos courtesy of CDC
What is a Rodent? • Common rodents are: mice, rats, squirrels, porcupines, beavers, and guinea pigs • Rodents have sharp teeth to chew on wood, break into food, and bite predators • Most rodents eat seeds, plants, or insects
Key Characteristics • Chew constantly to create holes and pathways (can cut wood, plastics, hoses, sheetrock, copper, wires, etc. ) • Are most active during the first two hours after dusk • Make lots of babies fast • Travel the same paths nightly, staying close to walls, or any items that give them cover.
Key Characteristics: Behavior and Habits • Travel up to 450 feet from their burrow • Prefer to live close to food and water sources • Outside infestations are usually associated with trash • Crawl spaces become infested if food trash collects along the outer foundation Photo courtesy of https: //www. possumman. com. au/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/mouse-running-along-stairs. jpg
Key Characteristics: Signs of Rodents • Sightings • Noise: chattering, squeaking, and hissing • Chew marks • Nests • Rat burrows • Feces droppings • Holes and rub marks Photo courtesy of https: //i. pinimg. com/736 x/5 f/0 c/a 0/5 f 0 ca 021 f 2 ed 96246 ce 0 a 87 fc 918 cf 6 d. jpg
Common Rodents: Rats Roof Rat Norway Rat AKA: black rat AKA: sewer rat, wharf rat, house rat Roof rats nest up high Norway rats nest within walls and ceilings or burrow in the ground outside Live mostly in coastal states south of Washington State and north to Maryland. Live throughout the U. S. Average home range: 25 to 300 feet. Average home range (in urban areas): 25 to 100 feet. Photo source: CDC
Common Rodents: House Mouse • One of the most common pests in the US. • Found around the world and are able to thrive under most conditions. • Average home range in buildings is 10 -30 feet. • Only need a small amount of food and water to thrive.
Health Concerns: Rodents • Carry infectious diseases • May cause asthma attacks • Bite • Damage food and property • Can attract other pests
Prevention: Prohibit • Close all openings larger than ¼ inch to exclude rats and mice • Repair or replace damaged vent screens • Remove all trash and debris • Trim trees, bushes and vines at least 4 feet away from the roof. • Remove heavy vegetation away from buildings and fences. https: //www. cdc. gov/rodents/prevent_infestations/seal_up. html
Prevention: Integrated Pest Management Tools • Sanitation—eliminate food source to eliminate the rodents • Exclusion—eliminate rodent entry pathways • Traps—proper placement is critical • Rodenticides—last resort and not highly effective without sanitation and exclusion Photo courtesy of https: //health. arlingtonva. us/environmental-health/rats-mice/
Prevention: Sanitation • Dumpsters should be • Free of holes • Covered • Placed on cement • Screen drain holes • Empty dumpsters regularly; they should never overflow Photo courtesy of https: //mexiconewsdaily. com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/garbage-can-overflow-600 x 406. jpg
Prevention: Eliminate Food and Water • Remove all sources of food, such as bird seeds left out for birds • Pick ripe fruit and pick up all fruit that has fallen to the ground. • Store pet food in metal containers with tight sealing lids and do not leave uneaten pet food outdoors.
Prevention: Eliminate Food and Water • Avoid storing food in garages and storage sheds unless it is in rat-proof covered metal containers. • Keep trash cans closed at all time with tightly fitted lids. • Repair leaking faucets, sprinklers, or other piping. Keep drain covers tightly fastened and unnecessary standing water.
Prevention: Traps and Rodenticides • Place traps near nesting areas or where rats are likely to hide. • Do not place traps where children or pets will disturb or be harmed by them. • Remove dead rats from traps by placing animals in tightly sealed containers for proper disposal. • Remember to wear rubber/vinyl/latex gloves • Clean and disinfect the affected areas near the traps. • Poison baits may be used when following recommended guidelines or professional rodent exterminator. https: //www. cdc. gov/rodents/prevent_infestations/trap_up. html
Photo courtesy of https: //www. cdc. gov/ticks/index. html Ticks
What is a Tick? Ticks are: Small arachnids Survive by feeding on blood of mammals Transmit at least 12 known diseases
Tick Life Cycle: Eggs hatch during the summer repeating the life cycle Adults climb onto the edges of grass or leaf tips in the Fall, and wait for their next host. After feeding for about a week, adults mate. 4 stages in Tick Life Cycle • Eggs laid in spring hatch in the summer. • Larval • Nymph • Adult During the spring females lay about 3, 000 eggs under a leaf Adults who don’t get their blood meal by the time cold weather arrives go into a sleeping stage. When temperatures get above 40 degrees, they again look for a host
Tick Life Cycle: Larvae • Larvae lie on the ground, waiting for a host to brush against them. • After a blood meal, the larvae drop off and molt into nymphs during the Fall. Photo courtesy of http: //www. tickencounter. org/images/Duck. Taped. Larvae_920 x 690_06. jpg
Tick Life Cycle: Nymphs • Nymphs (the size of a poppy seed) become active in the spring and attach themselves to another host. • After a blood meal, they drop into the leaf litter and molt into adults. Photo courtesy of https: //www. ent. iastate. edu/images/ticks/aamerfandnwdime. jpg
Tick Life Cycle: Adult
Tick Habitats • Nymphs live in leaf mold and on the ground • Nymphs wait on the ground or on the edges of grass leaves • Adults wait on grass or leaves within 3 feet of the ground Photo courtesy of https: //gardentherapy. ca/wp-content/uploads/pep-vn/29/297 dfe 48/ticks-can-behiding-in-the-garden-a 5. jpg
Health Concerns: Spread of Disease • Tick ingests blood from an infected host. • Tick attaches itself to an unprotected person. • Ticks need to be attached for 24+ hours to transmit disease • A large rash happens in the area of bite in 70 -80% of those who are infected Photo courtesy of https: //mosquitosquadblog. files. wordpress. com/2012/05/tick-bite. jpg
Health Concerns: Lyme Disease • Lyme disease is an infection caused by a bacteria that is carried in the east and mid-west by the deer tick, and in the west by the Western black-legged tick. • During early stages of infection, Lyme disease can be successfully treated with antibiotics. Photo courtesy of http: //www. cfsph. iastate. edu/Disease. Info/Image. DB/LYM_001. jpg
Prevention: After You Come Indoors • Check your clothing for ticks • Tumble dry clothes in a dryer on high heat for 10 minutes to kill ticks on dry clothing after you come indoors • Shower soon after being outdoors • Showering within two hours of coming indoors has been shown to reduce your risk of reducing tickborne diseases Image courtesy of https: //www. cdc. gov/ticks/avoid/on_people. html
Prevention: Removing Habitats • Remove leaves • Create borders between wooded areas and lawn with stone or other landscaping materials • Place plants and barriers that will keep deer away Photo courtesy of https: //i. pinimg. com/736 x/5 b/fc/0 d/5 bfc 0 d 175018 e 3916571 d 63 cab 8 e 8 b 69 --ticks-visible. jpg
[End of Presentation] Thank you! [On this slide the Health Department can insert local contact numbers for information on pest management or other sources for the general public]
References https: //www. cdc. gov/malaria/about/biology/mosquitoes/index. html https: //www. epa. gov/mosquitocontrol/success-mosquito-control-integrated-approach#remove habitats http: //www. navy. mil/submit/display. asp? story_id=94573 Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) Principal Investigator, Dr. Russanne Low, at IGES: [email protected] org and www. globe. gov https: //www. cdc. gov/westnile/prevention/index. html https: //www. epa. gov/insect-repellents/deet https: //www. cdc. gov/malaria/about/biology/mosquitoes/index. html http: //www. cdc. gov/features/Stop. Mosquitoes https: //www. cityofberkeley. info/Health_Human_Services/Environmental_Health/Control___Preventions_of_Rodents. aspx#Steps _to_Rodent_Control_ https: //www. cdc. gov/ticks/life_cycle_and_hosts. html https: //www. cdc. gov/ticks/avoid/on_people. html https: //www. cdc. gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/index. html http: //www. ct. gov/caes/lib/caes/documents/publications/fact_sheets/integratedtickmanagement. pdf