- Slides: 27
Informative Speech “Obviously, a man’s judgment cannot be better than the information on which he has based it. ” -Arthur Hays Sulzberger, publisher New York Times
Informative Speeches Begin Next Week l 2 nd Year Speech Students l l l 1 st Year Speech Students l l l Not less than 5 minutes Pick a topic, make sure it is not persuasive Not less than 3 minutes Inform about a person you admire; must have known the person Audience will complete evaluations
Introduction l Daily talk = much is giving instructions, providing facts, or clarifying ideas l l l l Directions to the office Tell friend what missed in class How to do something Explain what something is How it works How it’s used You provide information to others every day in a hundred different ways.
Introduction l Simple to Complicated l l Basic to Complex l l l Where’s the library vs. What is photosynthesis Details about dance vs. giving oral presentation based on research Emphasis is on statements of fact Goal is to make listeners understand
Types of Informative Speeches l l l Describe an object Explain a process Clarify a concept Opportunities for giving Informative Talks: l l l Public Lecture Status Report Briefing Fireside Chat Chalk Talk
Public Lecture Status Report l Public Lecture l Community group or club might want to hear about your area of expertise or experience l l l i. e. Garden Club/research on the super tomato i. e. American Legion Auxiliary/Girls’ State experience Status Report l l Businesses & Social Groups keep up to date on various projects What has been accomplished and plans for future l i. e. Senior citizen group/senior social
Briefing Fireside Chat l Briefing l l Tell members of a group about changes in policy or procedure l Swim team/how-to order team shirts l Yearbook staff/new layout plan Fireside Chat l l Named for a series of radio broadcasts given by President Franklin Roosevelt Group leader addresses concerns, worries, and issues of the moment l Principal with parents/review school goals and policies
Chalk Talk l Speaker relies on a visual aid (like a chalkboard) l Coach/shows team defense plan
Six Cs of Informative Speaking l l l l Be CLEAR Be CONCISE Be COMPLETE Be CORRECT Be CONCRETE CONNECT Goal response from listeners: “I understand what you said. ”
Be CLEAR l l l Q: Is my speech so clear that everyone will understand? Being clear is neither easy nor simple Define important words or phrases Purpose of a definition is to create some common ground between speaker and listener. BUT keep terms to a minimum
Be CLEAR l Make distinctions l l l Say what something is and what it is not i. e. Space shuttles liquid fuel engines, which can be turned off vs. solid fuel booster rockets, which can’t Anticipate ambiguous remarks l “Can this point be taken more than one way? ”
Be CLEAR l Use compare/contrast technique l l l i. e. Movies about Stephen King’s books Compared to horror films of past: Phantom of the Opera or Dracula Contrast them with sci-fi films: Aliens or Star Wars Be sure what you use for a comparison is FAMILIAR to your listeners Finally, balance the time spent to be clear with other, competing values (like being concise)
Be CONCISE l Is my speech so concise that no one’s time will be wasted? “Please repeat that again. ” “These two are both alike. ” “These pens are identically the same. ” “She arrived at 8 a. m. this morning. ” l These phrases say the same thing twice. l l
Be CONCISE l l Make each word count; use precise and specific language. Don’t say tree if you mean oak Don’t say temporarily reassigned if you mean fired Increase your vocabulary
Be COMPLETE l l l Is my speech complete? Impossible to cover all possible material related to a topic You can, however, create a sense of completion in the minds of the audience by raising certain expectations and then satisfying them.
Be COMPLETE l l Tell the audience you have three major points. Use transitions to highlight l l “First” “Third”
Be COMPLETE l Forecast what the audience can expect: ADVANCE ORGANIZERS l l l “I’m now going to present the three reasons local officials have tried to censor rap music…” The audience is listening for how many chunks of information? Introduce each reason with a reinforcing statement, “Now let’s look at the first reason…”
Be COMPLETE l l Working from a plan forces you to put your info in order Helps listeners distinguish major from minor points
Be CORRECT l l l Am I confident that my information is absolutely correct? There is no substitute for being accurate. Check and double-check accuracy of info which goes to heart of your credibility Convince your audience by telling them where you found the info Writing: footnotes/in-text citations Speaking: must be more subtle
Be CORRECT l Identify source briefly at end of info l l Or before the info l l “The verdict in the subway shooting trial was an outrage to justice, according to an editorial writer in this morning’s paper. ” “In an article in the February 27 issue of U. S. News and World Report, we read that cheating on standardized tests is widespread. ” You don’t need all the info that would appear in a bibliographical citation.
Be CONCRETE l l l Have I provided concrete examples so that the audience can see my point? Talk in terms of people, places, and things. Avoid abstractions and generalities Candy vs. Reese’s Pieces Instead of general women’s soccer, focus on a particular player. Filmmakers vs. Spike Lee
Be CONCRETE l l l “Most accidents happen at home. ” Only a vague idea at this point; immediately followed by an example. “Kerry Shea, a 14 -year-old, said she ‘just lost control’ of her toothbrush and swallowed it. ‘I was brushing the back of my tongue, ’ she added, ‘because I saw on TV that it helps to get a lot of sugar that way, when the toothbrush slipped and I swallowed it. ”
Be CONCRETE l l Concrete examples contain physical details. Series of short examples Long story-like example NEVER let a general statement stand alone without a supporting example
CONNECT l l l Can I connect my speech with what I know about my audience? Analyze the people who will be in your audience. What do they know? Not know? l If audience full of experts on how-to water ski, you would find a way to highlight some less well known aspect of the sport
CONNECT l You can make some assumptions about an audience by studying their demographics: social, economic, and cultural characteristics.
CONNECT l Checklist of Questions l l How many people will be present? What will be the ages of most of the people in the audience? Will the audience be mostly male, female, or mixed? What are their interests, attitudes, and beliefs? What do they know about the subject? What is their attitude toward it?
CONNECT l l l Wrap-up: Sensitivity to audience is one of the keys to successful communication Can’t choose audience, but can choose speech to fit a particular audience.