Information Technology ST to Enable NetworkCentric Operations 25

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Information Technology S&T to Enable Network-Centric Operations 25 April 2001 Dr. Howard S. Marsh

Information Technology S&T to Enable Network-Centric Operations 25 April 2001 Dr. Howard S. Marsh ONR Networkcentric IT Task Force Work in Progress [email protected] navy. mil

Network-Centric Operations • Network centric operations are “military operations that exploit information and networking

Network-Centric Operations • Network centric operations are “military operations that exploit information and networking technology to integrate widely dispersed human decision makers, situational and targeting sensors, and forces and weapons into a highly adaptive, comprehensive system to achieve unprecedented mission effectiveness. ” [Network-Centric Naval Forces, Naval Studies Board, National Research Council, 2000] • Operational Benefits – Increased Speed of Command • Operate Inside the Enemy’s “OODA Loop” • Achieve Capability for Sustained High OPTEMPO – Distributed Self-Synchronization • Unity of Command Without the Burden of Centralized Control • Ability to Take Individual Initiative Within a Force-Wide Decision Context • Flexibility and Adaptability to the Operational Situation – Decision Superiority • Effective Use of All Available Information • Effective and Efficient Use of Force Assets and Capabilities Bottom Line: Integrated Situational Awareness, Decision-Making and Execution 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 2

NCO is a Major Change in Operational Processes and Effectiveness DECISION MAKING EXECUTION es

NCO is a Major Change in Operational Processes and Effectiveness DECISION MAKING EXECUTION es SITUATION AWARENESS nte g t, I rre n ncu DECISION MAKING EXECUTION Co NOW SITUATION AWARENESS rat ed Pro c ess Sequential Processes Information Movement via Message Limited Awareness of Situation Limited Cross-Functional Awareness Limited Ability to Adapt in Real Time VISION Concurrent Processes Common, Consistent Information via the Grid Situation Awareness Matched to Need Ability to Self-Synchronize Real Time Adaptation/Deconfliction 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 3

VISION era tion Execution Within Segregated Warfare and Functional Areas Coordinated Through Centralized, Non-Real-Time

VISION era tion Execution Within Segregated Warfare and Functional Areas Coordinated Through Centralized, Non-Real-Time Planning With Minimal Ability for Individual Initiative to Respond to Operational Situation Changes s NCW Will Impact All Missions and Functions ina ord Co LAND ATTACK LAND MANEUVER WARFARE Co ncu rre nt, AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE LAND ATTACK AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ted Op CENTRALIZED PLANNING AND BATTLE MANAGEMENT LAND MANEUVER WARFARE NOW 3/10/2021 Execution According to Shared Understanding of Situation, Current Plans and Objectives, Commander’s Intent, and Other Actions Across the Force Work in Progress 4

Network Centric Operations Infrastructure is the Foundation for the Capability Coordination and Integration Across

Network Centric Operations Infrastructure is the Foundation for the Capability Coordination and Integration Across Warfare and Functional Areas ETC. LOGISTICS FROM THE SEA LAND WARFARE SUPPRESSION OF ENEMY AIR DEFENSES TIME CRITICAL STRIKE ANTI-AIR WARFARE Mission Capability Packages Hardware and Software to Disseminate Information, Manage and Process Information, Facilitate Decision-Making Applications, and Support Mission Execution 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 5

IT Capabilities Required for Naval NCO • • 3/10/2021 Universal, robust connectivity Mission-responsive resource

IT Capabilities Required for Naval NCO • • 3/10/2021 Universal, robust connectivity Mission-responsive resource control User-focused information dissemination Assured information integrity Effective information presentation Effective, distributed collaboration Empowered dismounted users Work in Progress 6

Optimize Information Service Delivery tw Ne se Inc re a Un ive rs al,

Optimize Information Service Delivery tw Ne se Inc re a Un ive rs al, Ro Lin tro on e. C rc t ou en es gem e R ana siv k M on or sp etw Re k & N n- io ss or bu k. T s hr t C ou o gh nn pu ec ta t nd ivit Re y ac h Mi l User-Focused Information Dissemination (Intelligent Dissemination and Pre-Positioning) 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 7

Universal, Robust Connectivity • Objective capability – – Assured, user-transparent connectivity Rapid adaptation of

Universal, Robust Connectivity • Objective capability – – Assured, user-transparent connectivity Rapid adaptation of networks to contend with real world status Routing and addressing to accommodate mobile users Connectivity from highest to lowest echelons • Current operational limitations – – Nodes on different networks have difficulty communicating Network membership must be prearranged Connectivity is stovepiped and preallocated in functional nets Too many radios and antennas are squeezed into a platform • Underlying technology needs – Implementing dynamic mobile networks – Combining capacity of shared networks – Providing simultaneous multichannel radio capabilities 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 8

Achieving Universal, Robust Connectivity • Implementing dynamic networks – Establish protocols and standards for

Achieving Universal, Robust Connectivity • Implementing dynamic networks – Establish protocols and standards for dynamic backbones – Experiment with emerging “mobile-IP” protocols – Harden for military use • Combining the capacities of shared networks – Develop protocols that enable legacy systems into network – Evolve from gate-wayed stovepipes to universal connectivity • Providing simultaneous multichannel radio capabilities – Continue development of multifrequency components – Develop adaptive strategies for tuning and beam pointing 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 9

Mission-Responsive Resource Control • Objective capability – Responding to the warfighters’ needs for information

Mission-Responsive Resource Control • Objective capability – Responding to the warfighters’ needs for information services – Tactical control of information assets for time-critical missions – Integration of information system status in operational view • Current operational limitations – – Quality of Service (Qo. S) cannot be managed to match needs Capacity is wasted to assure availability when needed Resource coordination is local and not needs based Resources cannot be rapidly reallocated for changing scenario • Underlying technology needs – Monitoring system status in terms of operational needs – Allocating resources dynamically to support operations – Preventing system degradation and compromise 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 10

Achieving Mission-Responsive Resource Control • Monitoring system status in terms of operational needs –

Achieving Mission-Responsive Resource Control • Monitoring system status in terms of operational needs – Examine commercial techniques as possible contributors – Develop software to map operational needs to Qo. S objectives – Develop status/readiness displays that include network status • Allocating resources dynamically to support operations – – Develop agents to monitor and advise on network status Display the map of missions to Qo. S objectives and limitations Improve analytical techniques for resource optimization Provide automated C 4 I for the grid with manual oversight • Preventing system degradation and compromise – Develop analytical techniques for predictive control of the grid – Develop analytical techniques for integrated grid monitoring – Develop automated tools for reactive defense and restoral 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 11

User-Focused Information Dissemination • Objective capability – Provide the right information to the users

User-Focused Information Dissemination • Objective capability – Provide the right information to the users at the right time – Avoid information overload or information search overload – Avoid unnecessary burdens on the radio communications • Current operational limitations – – Critical information is not always available when needed Decision makers are overloaded with data irrelevant to them There is too much reliance on central servers Current CONOPS bandwidth requirements will crash network • Underlying technology needs – Managing huge volumes of data and information – Disseminating and updating data intelligently – Accommodating information needs of individual users 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 12

Achieving User-Focused Information Dissemination • Managing huge volumes of data and information – Enable

Achieving User-Focused Information Dissemination • Managing huge volumes of data and information – Enable machines to understand the operational situation – Provide context-based throttling of information delivery – Use indexes and short messages to update prepositioned data • Disseminating and updating data intelligently – Preposition information based on inferred needs – Automate updates based on “good enough” criteria • Accommodating information needs of individual users – – 3/10/2021 Provide context based search and retrieval engines Employ speech and text understanding Provide machine translation of foreign languages Alert operators to mission critical information Work in Progress 13

Assure Ability to Support Operations Information Service Delivery Effective Presentation Effective Collaboration Information Integrity

Assure Ability to Support Operations Information Service Delivery Effective Presentation Effective Collaboration Information Integrity Empowered Dismounted Users 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 14

Assured Information Integrity • Objective capability – High confidence that info & services will

Assured Information Integrity • Objective capability – High confidence that info & services will be available when needed – High confidence that information can be trusted – Understanding of information quality and currency • Current operational limitations – – Users find security measures inhibiting and bypass them Weakness at any node can corrupt the entire network Applications are not robust in the tactical network environment Information credibility, accuracy, and currency are not evident • Underlying technology needs – Transparent security measures that support operations – End-to-end and network-wide assurance up to application layer – Assessment of information trustworthiness and quality 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 15

Assuring Information Integrity • Transparent security measures that support operations – Use common encryption

Assuring Information Integrity • Transparent security measures that support operations – Use common encryption methods operable at all data rates – Provide trusted and rapid guards and filters • End-to-end and network-wide assurance – – Detect questionable activities and alert users Monitor for inconsistencies, ambiguities, and uncertainties Establish protocol for tracking pedigrees across security levels Adapt software to contend with tactical Qo. S limitations • Presentation of Advice on information trustworthiness – – 3/10/2021 Provide assessments of information quality Provide advisories on credibility and confidence levels Provide automated tracking of uncertainties and assumptions Provide explanations and drilldown for integrated displays Work in Progress 16

Effective Information Presentation • Objective capability – – Present information in form and content

Effective Information Presentation • Objective capability – – Present information in form and content best tailored to need Help the users by providing integrated information products Allow the users to adapt their I/O to suit their preferences Allow the users to “drill down” to details quickly and easily • Current operational limitations – Non-intuitive presentations inhibit operator understanding – Information integration is often left to the user – Uncertainties in derived results are not presented • Underlying technology needs – – 3/10/2021 Reflecting the user’s decision processes Making interaction easy, intuitive and explanatory Correlating multiple events and circumstances Representing uncertainty and confidence in decision aids Work in Progress 17

Achieving Effective Information Presentation • Reflecting the user’s decision processes – Automate the linkage

Achieving Effective Information Presentation • Reflecting the user’s decision processes – Automate the linkage and use all of the relevant information – Provide machine recognition of significant patterns or trends • Making interaction easy, intuitive and explanatory – Empower user to customize views – Enable natural language interaction between system and user – Provide explanations for machine recommendations • Correlating multiple events and circumstances – Use agents to discover relations between disparate reports – Unburden user from mechanics of fusion • Representing uncertainty and confidence in decision aids – Develop advanced mathematical and computing techniques – Adapt and augment traditional displays and decision aids 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 18

Empowered Dismounted Users • Objective capability – Information services configured to dismounted infantry –

Empowered Dismounted Users • Objective capability – Information services configured to dismounted infantry – Hardware and software embedded in weapons and clothing – Hardware and software for small, unattended, mobile devices • Current operational limitations – – Dismounted user is only marginally connected to the network Deployed systems are too heavy and consume too much power User interfaces and presentations are not suitable Users have limited ability to use information from the network • Underlying technology needs – Satisfying equipment power, size, and weight needs – Developing deployable capabilities and interfaces – Providing network computing to act on the user’s behalf 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 19

Empowering Dismounted Users • Satisfying equipment power, size, and weight needs – Test and

Empowering Dismounted Users • Satisfying equipment power, size, and weight needs – Test and employ lower power, smaller COTS components – Test and employ better COTS power sources – Develop components and sources only if necessary • Developing deployable situation awareness techniques – Develop suitable terminals and human interface devices – Adapt software to work with low-data-rate communications – Provide connectivity to infosphere • Providing network computing to act on the user’s behalf – Develop agents that reside in the network and advise the users – Develop user proxy software agents that can roam the network – Develop software to request IRST support needed by the users 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 20

Effective Collaboration • Objective capability – – Ability to achieve collaboration across any set

Effective Collaboration • Objective capability – – Ability to achieve collaboration across any set of users Collaboration of software processes as “agents” of the users Ability to use commercial products in tactical networks Ability to collaborate across heterogeneous environments • Current operational limitations – Heterogeneous COTS systems do not work well together – Distributed collaboration( eg planning) is ineffective – Self synchronization is not being done in an optimal manner • Underlying technology needs – Sharing critical information and solving problems effectively – Interoperating among collaborative tools of different types – Maintaining collaboration over intermittent networks 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 21

Achieving Effective Collaboration • Sharing critical information and solving problems – Develop software to

Achieving Effective Collaboration • Sharing critical information and solving problems – Develop software to allow needed access within collaborations – Exchange information tuned to user’s capabilities/needs • Interoperating among collaborative tools – Develop software to allow interoperability among COTS tools – Modify tools to solve problems at appropriate level • Maintaining collaboration over intermittent networks – Develop software to adapt COTS products for tactical use – Develop software to allow imposition of “minimize” states – Develop technology for “quasi-synchronous” collaboration 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 22

It Won’t “Just Happen” We Need to Take Actions to “Walk the Talk” •

It Won’t “Just Happen” We Need to Take Actions to “Walk the Talk” • To Realize the Full Potential of NCO Technology Advances Are Required in Certain Key Areas • The Commercial Sector Will Contribute Many of the Needed Technologies, But Significant Gaps Will Remain for Do. D and the Naval Services to Address 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 23

Example: This is Not the Internet The “Upside Down Wedding Cake” Issue The Expeditionary

Example: This is Not the Internet The “Upside Down Wedding Cake” Issue The Expeditionary Naval Information Environment LANs and Computers X Gb/s per Site X 100 Mb/s X 10 Mb/s Sum of All Tactical Area RF Networks Global Backbone Connectivity (RF) The Internet Information Environment X Gb/S per Site LANs and Computers X Terabits Per Sec X Petabits Per Sec 3/10/2021 Work in Progress Access Area Networks Wide Area Networks 24

Achieving Network-Centric Capabilities • Must co-evolve – Concepts of operation, tactics, techniques, and procedures

Achieving Network-Centric Capabilities • Must co-evolve – Concepts of operation, tactics, techniques, and procedures – Required new materiel – Organizational structures • ONR’s role – Identify • IT capabilities required for networkcentric operations • Current operational limitations with available materiel • Technology needed to overcome the operational limitations – Institute S&T programs needed to nurture these technologies • Demonstrate, refine, or invent 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 25

Strategy for Developing S&T Plan • • Create NCO Task Force including experts external

Strategy for Developing S&T Plan • • Create NCO Task Force including experts external to ONR and NRL staff Develop a vision for NCO Infrastructure Develop a taxonomy from the operational level through enabling functionality to science and technology areas to enable constructive dialog among Fleet/Forces, OPNAV, acquisition, concepts/doctrine, and S&T Identify shortfalls and technical issues that impact movement toward the vision Collaborate with OPNAV, DASN, NWC, NWDC, SSG, and MCCDC to identify priorities, timelines, requirements, and a roadmap for S&T products to enable staged implementation of the NCO infrastructure and capability Assess current S&T programs supported by industry and government Develop a roadmap to define requirements, schedules, S&T priorities in a collaborative plan with acquisition, OPNAV, concepts and doctrine Address the S&T Limitations That Are Critical Impediments (“Long Poles”) to Progress and That Are Not Likely to Be Addressed by the Commercial Sector 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 26

Functional Shortfalls Drive Need for S&T • Functional capability requires technology beyond current or

Functional Shortfalls Drive Need for S&T • Functional capability requires technology beyond current or emerging “state-of-the-art” • Partnership with Army, Air Force, DARPA to address combined need for NCW enablers not expected to be available from the commercial sector Extract from NCW S&T Assessment Technology Area Sub-Elements: Objectives/Thresholds Current Status Impact of Shortfall: Functional Area Limitations 3. 1 Data Transport 3. 1. 1 Transmission Systems/Data Links: · Multiple antennas required for · Severe limitations on ability Technology • Ability to provide multiband, to provide robust connection multiple systems/functions multifunction rf services to tactical · Antennas have coverage and from ships and other platforms tracking limitations that result to the tactical grid (2. 1) • Provision of throughput to support in inadequate gain to meet link · Competing demands for NCW requirements, including fire control services will not be met margin requirements. quality data for theater air and missile · Transmit/Receive systems · Severe limitations on ability to 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 27

Roadmap for Evolution to the NCO Objective • Develop capability in defined stages –

Roadmap for Evolution to the NCO Objective • Develop capability in defined stages – – Recognize constraints for changing concepts and doctrine Recognize need for accommodating legacy systems Recognize budgetary limitations Recognize realistic technology limitations • Coordinate experimentation, concepts, S&T efforts – Experiment with state-of-the-shelf technology – Analyze and simulate with state-of-the-art technology – Model and wargame with anticipated alternative future technology • Guide POM development – Address need to move beyond existing requirements documents – Establish POM wedge for concept-driven programs 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 28

Strawman Stages INTEGRATED FORCE BATTLE COMMAND SELF SYNCHRONIZED EXECUTION MOST FUNCTIONS SUPPORTED IN COMMON

Strawman Stages INTEGRATED FORCE BATTLE COMMAND SELF SYNCHRONIZED EXECUTION MOST FUNCTIONS SUPPORTED IN COMMON GRID MISSION-DRIVEN NETWORK ADAPTATION C 4 I FOR THE GRID EMBEDDED IN OPS CAPABILITY NEW DOCTRINE FOR INTEGRATION ACROSS SELECTED MISSIONS COMMON INFORMATION GRID BASED ON IP FULLY DYNAMIC RADIO NETWORK BACKBONE HETEROGENEOUS COMPUTING SERVICES DISTRIBUTED, COOPERATING AGENTS AUTOMATED SYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND DEFENSE NEW DOCTRINE FOR COORDINATED OPS ACROSS SELECTED MISSION AREAS IP APPLIQUES FOR SELECTED NON-IP NETWORKS INTEGRATED EXPEDITIONARY SENSOR GRID NON-SATCOM RADIO RELAY NETWORK WITH LIMITED DYNAMICS STRONGLY FEDERATED MANAGEMENT OF SELECTED SUB-GRIDS DISTRIBUTED AGENTS FOR INFORMATION ACCESS SERVICES CURRENT OPERATIONAL DOCTRINE EXISTING LEGACY SYSTEMS GATEWAYS ACROSS NON-IP NETS MEDIATORS FOR SA INFORMATION TIME 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 29

Status (April) • Coordination draft completed – Identification of needed IT capabilities and current

Status (April) • Coordination draft completed – Identification of needed IT capabilities and current shortfalls – Identification of technologies needed to overcome shortfalls • Ongoing – Coordination: OPNAV, NWDC, MCCDC, SSG, SYSCOM – Evaluation of each identified technology for • Objective and state of maturity • Investments by others • Transition needs and opportunities – Documenting recommended investment strategy in a roadmap • Future – Initiating required demonstrations and S&T programs 3/10/2021 Work in Progress 30