- Slides: 16
Infancy Learning Capacities & Perceptual Development s a great blooming, buzzing confusion. ” ~ William James
How do infants learn? 1. Classical conditioning: Relies on reflexes - Related to survival value of the UCS-CS
How do infants learn? 2. Operant conditioning: Spontaneous behavior followed by stimulus changes the likelihood of it reoccurring – Reinforcer: positive stimulus – Punishment: negative stimulus
How do infants learn? 3. Habituation: reduction in response strength due to repetitive stimulation – Recovery: heightened response rate upon novel stimuli Habituation : shown picture until no longer interested (e. g. , look away) Recovery: old & novel picture & assess response (e. g. , look at novel picture) Did not Learned
How do infants learn? 4. Imitation: learning by copying another person – – Limited ability in young infants Starting point for operant conditioning Which learning capacity matters most?
Perceptual Development Which pattern do infants prefer to look at? > 6 weeks < 3 weeks It depends on which contrast they can perceive
Visual Development 1. Pattern perception n Infants prefer patterned over plain stimuli n Contrast sensitivity – if pattern detectable, prefer stimuli with more n Methods – Habituation-recovery technique
Visual Development 1. Pattern perception n Infants prefer patterned over plain stimuli n Contrast sensitivity – if pattern detectable, prefer stimuli with more n Methods – Habituation-recovery technique – Visual scanning – track eye movements
What do infants perceive on the human face?
Visual Development 2. Depth perception n Judge distance of objects from one another & ourselves n Why is depth perception important? – **Allows for reaching & grasping accurately (3 mo)** – Related to safer crawling (6 mo) n Methods: visual cliff (Gibson & Walk, 1960)
Results: % of infants that cross the cliff Time crawling & likelihood to cross cliff r =. 54 Nature & nurture influence depth perception!
Preparation for In-class Activity 3 Find a reputable toy website (e. g. , Fisher Price, Leap Frog, Baby Einstein, etc. ) and visit the section featuring toys for infants. Identify one of the top selling toys and bring information (i. e. , name, picture, website, etc. ) in for the next class period.