Inequality and child wellbeing Kate E Pickett Ph

  • Slides: 32
Download presentation
Inequality and child wellbeing Kate E Pickett, Ph. D FRSA FFPH

Inequality and child wellbeing Kate E Pickett, Ph. D FRSA FFPH

Fig 1 All cause mortality in children aged 0 -14 years in European countries

Fig 1 All cause mortality in children aged 0 -14 years in European countries (three year moving average)10. Wolfe I et al. BMJ 2011; 342: bmj. d 1277 © 2011 by British Medical Journal Publishing Group

The UNICEF Index of Child Well-being, 2007

The UNICEF Index of Child Well-being, 2007

Child Well-being is Better in More Equal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The

Child Well-being is Better in More Equal Rich Countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www. equalitytrust. org. uk

Child wellbeing and income inequality in US States Correlations and p-values Income inequality Average

Child wellbeing and income inequality in US States Correlations and p-values Income inequality Average income Foundation for Child Development 25 -item index 0. 43 (0. 002) -0. 61 (<0. 001) Kids Count 10 -item index (shown in graph) 0. 51 (<0. 001) -0. 53 (<0. 001)

Child outcomes related to income inequality • In rich countries – – – –

Child outcomes related to income inequality • In rich countries – – – – Infant mortality Low birth weight Overweight Educational achievement Peer relations Bullying Teenage births Social mobility • In US states – – Infant mortality Low birth weight Overweight Educational achievement – Mental health problems – Teenage pregnancy – Juvenile homicides

More children are overweight in more unequal countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit

More children are overweight in more unequal countries Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)

Income inequality and school bullying by 11 year-olds in 37 countries (r =. 62)

Income inequality and school bullying by 11 year-olds in 37 countries (r =. 62) Elgar FJ, Craig W, Boyce W, Morgan A, Vella-Zarb R. Income inequality and school bullying: multilevel study of adolescents in 37 countries. J Adolesc Health. Oct 2009; 45(4): 351 -359.

Social mobility is lower in more unequal countries Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level

Social mobility is lower in more unequal countries Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level www. equalitytrust. org. uk

Infant mortality rates by social class Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)

Infant mortality rates by social class Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www. equalitytrust. org. uk

Why are children so sensitive to inequality? • Effects of relative poverty on material

Why are children so sensitive to inequality? • Effects of relative poverty on material resources? • Impact on family life and relationships? • Direct experience of increased status differentiation?

Inequality affects family life & relationships Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)

Inequality affects family life & relationships Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009) www. equalitytrust. org. uk

Inequality affects family life & relationships Source: Bowles S, Park Y. Economic Journal 2005;

Inequality affects family life & relationships Source: Bowles S, Park Y. Economic Journal 2005; 115 (507): F 397–F 412. 2005.

Iacoviello M. Household Debt and Income Inequality, 1963– 2003. Journal of Money, Credit and

Iacoviello M. Household Debt and Income Inequality, 1963– 2003. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 2008; 40(5): 929 -65.

Status differentiation has a direct effect on cognitive performance Number of mazes solved The

Status differentiation has a direct effect on cognitive performance Number of mazes solved The Effect of Caste Identity on Children's Performance Caste Unannounced Caste Announced Source: Hoff K, Pandey P, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3351, June 2004

Inequalities become entrenched early in life • Cognitive scores at 3 years of age

Inequalities become entrenched early in life • Cognitive scores at 3 years of age (MCS) • Children with the most educated parents 12 months ahead of those with the least educated parents • Children in families with incomes below our poverty line had scores about 8 months behind those with incomes above it • White children about half a month ahead of the all-UK average, followed by children from a mixed ethnic background, about half a month behind • Bangladeshi and Pakistani children lowest vocabulary scores, with averages around 35, characteristic of the lowest tenth in the population at large http: //www. cls. ioe. ac. uk

Prenatal exposures have long-term effects • PRENATAL STRESS – – – Alcohol Nutrition Cigarette

Prenatal exposures have long-term effects • PRENATAL STRESS – – – Alcohol Nutrition Cigarette smoke Breastfeeding BIRTH WEIGHT/GESTATION Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Mental health/behaviour IQ and education Reproductive health Social status (marriage) Birth weight of next generation Health-related behaviours Birth weight of next generation

Postnatal exposures have long-term effects • • Poor attachment Maternal depression Breastfeeding Poor parenting

Postnatal exposures have long-term effects • • Poor attachment Maternal depression Breastfeeding Poor parenting Ø Ø Ø Failure to thrive Mental health/behaviour IQ and education Social mobility Health-related behaviours

A two stage process: parental experiences of inequality shape child development Parenting styles prepare

A two stage process: parental experiences of inequality shape child development Parenting styles prepare children for the kind of social relations they may have to deal with in adulthood Preparation for a society dependent on: • trust, cooperation, reciprocity, empathy? or: • fending for yourself, not trusting others?

Child Wellbeing Inequality and Child Wellbeing (UNICEF Rpt 2013) Low Income Inequality (Gini) Pickett

Child Wellbeing Inequality and Child Wellbeing (UNICEF Rpt 2013) Low Income Inequality (Gini) Pickett & Wilkinson, Pediatrics. (forthcoming) High

Child wellbeing Change 2000 -2010 Changes in inequality and child wellbeing (UNICEF Index) Inequality

Child wellbeing Change 2000 -2010 Changes in inequality and child wellbeing (UNICEF Index) Inequality change 2000 -2010 (gini) Pickett & Wilkinson, Pediatrics. (forthcoming)