- Slides: 11
Agricultural Revolution • Shift away from small farms and old farming techniques to big farms and more modern techniques • 1701 -Seed drill (instead of scattering seeds) • Crop rotation – Different crops in a field each year (need to replace nutrients • Breeding – Only breed best cattle/sheep
Industrial Revolution • Increased output of machine-made goods that began in England • Aka-shift from making things by hand to making a lot by machine
Industrialization starts in England • Industrialization – Process of developing machine production of goods • Why England? – Water power and coal to power new machines – Iron ore to construct machines, tools, buildings – Rivers for transportation – Harbors for trade – Good banking system – Good economy – Land, labor and capital (factors of production)
Inventions • Make more money if you can speed up spinning and weaving – John Kay-made shuttle sped back and forth on wheels – James Hargreaves-Spinning Jenny worked eight threads at a time – Richard Arkwright-water frame, used steam to power machines
Inventions • Eli Whitney (US) – Cotton gin-speeds up the amount of cotton that can be cleaned (1810) • Samuel Crompton – combines jenny and water frame = spinning mule (stronger & finer thread) • Edmund Cartwright – power loom speeds up weaving (1787)
Transportation • Steam Engine – James Watt from Scotland makes a efficient steam engine. He joins with Matthew Boulton to build better steam engines. – Steam engines can power boats! • Means faster transportation of people and goods!
Transportation • John Mc. Adam – Scottish, works to make roads that are covered with a smooth layer of crushed rock (HELLOMODERNIZATION!) • No sinking in the mud! • New roads called turnpikes – Have to pay tolls ($$) at a turnpike to travel on that road.
Railways • Steam-Driven Locomotives – 1804, Richard Trevithick wins money because of his steam-driven train (wins bet) • Steam engines need coal to heat up H 2 O for energy to move the train
Railways • Liverpool-Manchester Railroad – Finished in 1829 – Tran, the Rocket, hauled 13 ton load at 24 mph (pretty fast for back then!) – Officially opened in 1830 to the public • It’s a hit!
Railways-What do they do? • Provides cheap transportation • Creates new jobs • Boosts agricultural and fishing industries – Then can transport goods faster so they’re fresher! • Commuting to work! – Can live farther from your workplace…