- Slides: 24
Industrial Revolution Responses
Responses to Industrial Revolution �In the early 1800 s, a group called the Luddites protested changes to the economy brought about by the Industrial Revolution. �With the creation of new technologies, skilled workers were losing their jobs and wages were shrinking.
Luddites �The accumulation of wealth was more important to the factory owners than equality and providing employment to the working class.
Luddites �Factories and businesses were designed to facilitate industrial processes, and workers were viewed as a component of production. ◦ If the people could be replaced by machines that operated cheaper and faster, the factory owners would do it.
Luddites � By the early 19 th Century, skilled textile workers were being replaced by machines operated by cheap, relatively unskilled labourers. ◦ The replaced workers formed a protest movement led by Ned Ludd. �First person believed to have destroyed industrial machinery.
Luddites �Formed “Army of Redressers”. ◦ Broke into factories and destroyed over 200 of the machines that would make their labour redundant and threaten their employment. �First attacks occurred in Notingham and the movement of “Luddism” spread across the textile industry.
Luddites �The government responded by declaring machine-breaking a capital offence; punishable by death.
Improving Conditions for the Working Class �Industrialization led to great change and innovation in society, as well as a dramatic increase in the gap between the people who were rich and those who were poor. ◦ Many people viewed this as unfair. ◦ Many sought to improve the conditions of the working class people.
Improving Conditions for the Working Class �Eventually the government intervened and passed a number of acts in the 19 th century. ◦ Increase minimum wage ◦ Shortened working day ◦ Increased age of child labourers ◦ Improve working conditions
Improving Conditions for the Working Class �Considering what you know about classical liberalism… ◦ Why is this government intervention significant? ◦ What does this tell you about how the Industrial Revolution is changing?
Improving Conditions for the Working Class �Factory Acts ◦ A series of laws passed by British Parliament during the 1800 s and early 1900 s to make better and fairer working conditions. �The master of the factory must observe the law. �All rooms are to be lime-washed twice a year and duly ventilated. �Every child is to be supplied with two suits of clothing. �The hours of children are not to exceed 12 hours a day, nor start before 6 am and end after 9 pm. �Children are to be instructed in reading, writing and math.
Improving Conditions for the Working Class �As time passed in the 19 th century, more restrictions were put in place in terms of working conditions and the extent to which children were allowed to work. �Although these acts are from the 1800 s, in what ways do they benefit your life today?
Labour Unions �A group of people who try to improve the working conditions and wages for either a specific group of workers or an entire industry. ◦ Strength in numbers. ◦ Strikes or work stoppages. �During the 1800 s and 1900 s, some people used labour unions to reduce the negative impacts of laissez-faire capitalism.
Labour Unions �Can you think of any popular or well known labour unions? �What do you think the role of a labour union is, in terms of the workers? �Can labour unions have negative effects on the greater society?
Labour Unions �Do you agree with the role of labour unions?
Increasing Rights and Government Intervention: The Welfare State �As time passed, the role of the government became challenged by different groups of people and it changed in many different ways…
Increasing Rights and Government Intervention: The Welfare State �A society in which the government plays a large role in providing the needs of the citizens. ◦ In a welfare state, government provides many services to the citizens at either a low cost or free. �Healthcare, education, employment insurance, social assistance, etc. )
Increasing Rights and Government Intervention: The Welfare State �Consider what you now know about The Welfare State… ◦ Which modern countries would be good examples of countries that are Welfare States?
Evolution of Individual Rights and Collective Rights �In the late 1800 s and early 1900 s, as a result of citizen action and the development of new legislation that supported the improvement of workers’ living and working conditions, the extension of rights for ALL citizens became a political focus. �What citizens do you suppose would be without rights at this time?
Evolution of Individual Rights and Collective Rights �Many people, such as women and people with certain ethnic backgrounds, began to question why their political, economic and social freedoms were limited. ◦ They began to work towards changing the laws.
Evolution of Individual Rights and Collective Rights �Early Feminism ◦ During the time of the Industrial Revolution women had very limited rights. ◦ But why the mid-1800 s, many men and women believed that the ideas of liberty and individual worth should be extended to include women.
Evolution of Individual Rights and Collective Rights � The suffrage movement is considered the first wave of feminism. ◦ Feminism: the belief in social, political and economic equality of women. � The suffrage movement is occurring at the end of the 1800’s and beginning of the 1900’s… ◦ Do you think women today have equality with men in terms of social, political an economics?
Evolution of Individual Rights and Collective Rights �When we look back on history we can often be critical of the views and opinions that people at the time held. (ex. Slavery or Women’s Inequality) ◦ With that in mind, what inequalities do you think exist today that future generations might look back upon us and be critical of?
From Classical to Modern � Considering labour unions, the extension of voting rights, creation of government social programs and the recognition of women and other groups… ◦ In what ways do you think these things helped the evolution of liberalism? ◦ If these are the changes that are causing liberalism to evolve, then what would a modern liberalistic society look like?