- Slides: 48
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION JAMBOREE 1700 - 1900
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped making goods at home and started making goods in factories.
IMMIGRATION Huge populations of people immigrated to America from Europe. Workers in newly industrial America. Factories, mills and farms.
Immigrants come to the USA for jobs and opportunities.
WORKING CONDITIONS Working Conditions were horrible. 14 hours work days. 6 days a week. No safety features. Bosses beat workers.
WORKERS No unemployment. No health insurance. No safety codes. No building codes. No protection for children. Little money. Horrible living conditions
Many immigrants lived in tenements.
LIVING CONDITIONS Worker earned very little money. Extended families shared small apartments. No sanitation or running water.
WHY DID INDUSTRY GROW? Natural Resources Coal, iron, oil, forests, fertile land provide material for industrial growth
RIVERS, CANALS AND HARBORS Rivers, canals and harbors were key in development of Industrial revolution. Transport raw materials to production. Move people for work. finished products to market.
WHY DID INDUSTRY GROW? Human talent and labor 1860 -1900 population of US doubled massive immigration
SOCKS AND CORPORATIONS To create a large company, like a railroad, you need capitol. Owner would sell certificates of ownership called stocks. A corporation is a company owned by stockholders.
Starts with the Agricultural Revolution
AGRARIAN REVOLUTION Production of farms grows rapidly. Jethtro Tull’s seed drill changed how crops were planted. Seeds were placed in the soil. Limited wasted seeds.
CROP ROTATION Rotating your crops in a three fields system would increase your production by a third. All three fields may be used every year.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Water power and coal to fuel new machines. Iron ore production to construct machines. Rivers and canals for inland transportation. . Harbors from which merchant ships set sail.
EARLY INVENTIONS Robert Fulton invents the steam engine which revolutionized transportation and power.
RAILROAD AGE Railroad transportation can move tons of product at a very affordable cost.
RAILROAD CHANGES AMERICA Manufacturing could transport finished products, raw materials. Created thousand of jobs. Also, made travel for people easier.
STEAM ENGINES CHANGE WATER TRANSPORTATION
URBANIZATION People moving to the city from the country side. Urban - city Rural - Countryside. Also, the building up of cities to deal with populations
Reforming the Industrial World A FORWARD STEP FOR THE WORKER.
LAISSEZ FAIRE ECONOMICS Government should stay out of business. No regulations for safety, insurance, building, working hours or conditions. Without government interference, business and the economy would flourish.
“Government should allow free trade – as free flow of commerce in the world without regulation. This will make our economies prosper. - A smart dude.
ADAM SMITH In his book, the Wealth of Nations, he supported Laissez Fair government. People should act in their own self-interest. Let competition and supply and demand force people to make better and cheaper products.
CAPITALISM An economic system in which people invest in business ventures for a profit. The strongest companies kill off the weak. This makes for a strong country and economy.
ANDREW CARNEGIE Born in Scotland, 1835 Drove small companies out of Bought Iron Mines, Ships, Foundaries By 1900, US Steel controls steel production
ANDREW CARNEGIE Gospel of Wealthy had obligation to improve society Led to significant philanthropy
PHILANTHROPISTS wealthy person who donates money to educational and cultural institutions Supported Music and the Arts by Museums Hospitals building theaters
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER Bought oil refinery in 1863 (place to purify oil) Created Trust Standard Oil Trust many businesses in one industry controlled by one company
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER Purchased oil lines, barrel manufacturers, railroads Eliminated competition Could charge any price he wanted
CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY Leaders of an industry Entrepreneurs Use are people that start businesses inventions and new technologies to get advantage
FREE ENTERPRISE Capitalism is based on competition between businesses Free Enterprise businesses compete freely without government interference Some believe trusts unfairly stopped competition
ROBBER BARON Ruthless driving opponents out of business When succeed, raise price and lower quality of product Increased profit by paying low wages Ignored unsafe working conditions
SOCIAL DARWINISM Darwin’s Theory Nature had law of natural selection “Survival of the Fittest” Only the strong survive Social Darwinism Applied theory to businesses and poor Justified harsh tactics in business and not helping poor
BUSINESS ATTITUDES Laissez – faire – government took no role in business Corporations only concerned about making money, not conditions