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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION By: Austin Foley
• The industrial revolution began in the 1790 s and lasted through the 1860 s • It originated in the United Kingdom but quickly diffused across the globe • It spread to the United States in the 19 th century • The use of metal tools increased productivity • Metal tools were also used on innovations such as the steam engine and the cotton mill • Interchangeable parts were introduced in America providing a simpler way of repairing certain tools or machines • The textile industry was very successful because of inventions such as the flyer-and-bobbin system used in factories • The factories relied heavily on child labor because it was cheap and easily accessable
ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS During the industrial revolution the economy improved due to more rapid production. Inventions such as the steam engine helped increase productivity especially in cotton mills. The steam engine was used to power the hundreds of machines in the mill. Prior to these innovations, the production of cloth and clothing was a cottage industry which required tedious amount of time and effort. Families used the spinning wheel and the hand loom to make their products. Which was significantly less efficient than the newer improved methods. Another change was the use of coal as a fuel source. Prior to the revolution wood was the fuel source for blacksmiths and other businesses. Upon the discovery of the applications of coal as fuel, the coal mining industry took a large leap. This provided more jobs, but at a cost. The pollution rates increased exponentially, and has continued to increase into the future.
CULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS The industrial revolution provided many working opportunities for the people of Europe. The textile industry was a large business that required many workers to run the mills. A lot of times mills would rely on child labor to run their factories which prevented the children form getting an education and forcing them to work. The factories were dangerous enough for adults, for children it was even worse. With all of the moving parts in the machines it was very easy for a child’s hair or clothing to get caught in the mechanism if they weren't careful. Children were not the only ones working in the textile mills, woman were a big part of the industry as well. They were paid next to nothing for the amount of work they did. This make it hard for families to support themselves if both the mother and child is working and getting little pay from their work. During the industrial revolution there was a shift in the population from rural to urban because of the available jobs in the cities.
IMPACTS ON THE MODERN WORLD Most all of the devices we rely on every day would not have been possible if the industrial revolution had never happened. Most everything in the world is mass produced, an idea that began during the industrial revolution. The United State’s development of interchangeable parts had a huge impact on how we produce many things today. Not every part of the industrial revolution was beneficial. After coal was relied more heavily as a source of fuel, the amount of pollutants in the air increased greatly. This pattern continued on throughout history until the present.
WORK CITED • Ashton, T. S. . "Wikipedia. " Industrial revolution. Wikipedia, 2011. Web. 29 Jan 2012. <http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution>. • Hackett, L. . " Industrial Revolution. " International world history project. History World International, 1992. Web. 29 Jan 2012. <http: //historyworld. org/Industrial Intro. htm>. • Montagna, J. A. . "The Industrial Revolution. " Yale - new haven teachers institute. Yale University, 2011. Web. 30 Jan 2012. <http: //yale. edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1981/2/81. 02. 06. x. html>.