Individual Differences in SLA Styles Strategies Learning styles

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Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning styles – our preferred (natural, habitual,

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning styles – our preferred (natural, habitual, “without thinking”) way of learning. • global v. analytic • field in / dependence • feeling v. thinking • impulsive v. reflective • intuitive-random v. concrete-sequential • closure-oriented v. open • extroverted v. introverted • visual v. auditory v. tactile/kinesthetic Oxford & Anderson. (1995). A cross-cultural view of learning styles. Language Teaching, 28, 201– 215. 1

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning styles – our preferred (natural, habitual,

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning styles – our preferred (natural, habitual, “without thinking”) way of learning. For the most part, scholars determine learners’ styles through use of instruments, often—but not always—questionnaires. Field In / Dependence has been studied widely. It is “the extent to which a person perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding field as a whole, rather than embedded” (p. 121). Jamieson, J. (1992). The cognitive styles of reflection / impulsivity and field independence / dependence and ESL success. Modern Language Journal, 76, 491– 501. 2

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Field In / Dependence In studies of

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Field In / Dependence In studies of Field In / Dependence learner style is determined by two tests: the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT). Match the figures … 3

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Field In / Dependence … and the

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Field In / Dependence … and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT). Find the embedded figure in the more complex graphic … 4

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Field In / Dependence … and the

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Field In / Dependence … and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT). What embedded figures to you see here? 5

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Field In / Dependence There is complex

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Field In / Dependence There is complex empirical evidence on the impact of field in / dependence on language learning. What do you think it might be? If we are field dependent (more holistically oriented; focusing on the comprehensive field) … FD people are more socially oriented, and may have more success in SLA in communicative, naturalistic situations. If we are field independence (oriented more toward discrete parts than the whole) … FI people are more self reliant (independent), and 6 may succeed in analytical SLA situations.

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning strategies – the conscious decisions we

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning strategies – the conscious decisions we make about the learning task (strategies). 1. cognitive strategies, involving the manipulation or transformation of learning materials / input (e. g. , repetition, summarizing, using images); 2. metacognitive strategies, involving higher-order strategies aimed at analyzing, monitoring, evaluating, planning, and organizing one’s own learning process; 7

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning strategies – the conscious decisions we

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning strategies – the conscious decisions we make about the learning task (strategies). 1. cognitive strategies; 2. metacognitive strategies; 3. social strategies, involving interpersonal behaviors aimed at increasing the amount of L 2 communication and practice the learner undertakes (e. g. initiating interaction with native speakers, cooperating with peers); 4. affective strategies, involving taking control of the emotional conditions and experiences that shape one’s subjective involvement in learning. 8

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning strategies – the conscious decisions we

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning strategies – the conscious decisions we make about the learning task (strategies). 1. cognitive strategies; 2. metacognitive strategies; 3. social strategies; 4. affective strategies. Dörnyei & Skehan. (2003). Individual differences in SLA. In Doughty & Long (Eds. ), Handbook of SLA (pp. 589– 630). Blackwell. (Note the slightly different taxonomy of strategies than in Carson and Longhini. ) 9

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning strategies O’Malley, Chamot, Küpper. (1989). Listening

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies Learning strategies O’Malley, Chamot, Küpper. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in SLA. Applied Linguistics, 10, 418– 437. 11 high school students; Spanish as first language. 8 “effective learners” and 3 “ineffective learners, ” as categorized by their teacher “think aloud strategy” – students described what they were thinking during 8 pauses in taped passages. Student comments on their own processes / strategies were taped, coded, and analyzed. 10

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies O’Malley, Chamot, Küpper Effective listeners: • monitored

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies O’Malley, Chamot, Küpper Effective listeners: • monitored attention lapses; redirected attention as necessary; • listened for larger “chunks” of text; shifted attention to individual words only when there was a breakdown in comprehension; • related new information to prior information. Ineffective listeners: • approached texts on a word-by-word basis; • were unaware of inattention; did not redirect attention to the oral text when needed; • did not make connections between new information and their own lives. 11

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies O’Malley, Chamot, Küpper How would we characterize

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies O’Malley, Chamot, Küpper How would we characterize this research? Is it correlation research, involving the use of an instrument and performance data? Qualitative research, maybe a case study. What do we gain in understand individual differences in SLA from this kind of research? thick description provides nuances in how people differ (i. e. , beyond the static categories that orient instruments -- integrative v. instrumental motivation, e. g. ); we get a clearer sense of the process of SLA. 12

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies O’Malley, Chamot, Küpper How would we characterize

Individual Differences in SLA: Styles / Strategies O’Malley, Chamot, Küpper How would we characterize this research? Is it correlation research, involving the use of an instrument and performance data? Qualitative research, maybe a case study. What do we lose? parsimony; neatness; generalizability. More? Into which group does Carson and Longhini (2002) fall? 13