Individual Differences Approach Abnormal Psychology I Individual Differences

  • Slides: 19
Download presentation
Individual Differences Approach: Abnormal Psychology

Individual Differences Approach: Abnormal Psychology

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality �A. Individual Differences Approach � 1. It involves the

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality �A. Individual Differences Approach � 1. It involves the study of how we differ as individuals instead of making generalizations about people as a whole. This includes � a. Personality � b. Intelligence � c. Thinking styles � d. Abnormality

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality � 3. Strengths of this approach � a. Looks

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality � 3. Strengths of this approach � a. Looks at the uniqueness of us as individuals � b. By looking at differences we gain more insight into similarities. For example by looking at Abnormal we gain insight into what is normal. � 4. Weaknesses of this approach � a. May lack generalizability as looking at individuals rather than groups. � b. May be difficult for researchers to avoid ethnocentrism, that is to design tasks for other cultures that do not reflect the ethnic biases that the researcher brings to the task.

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality �B. Definition of Abnormality � 1. A harmful dysfunction

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality �B. Definition of Abnormality � 1. A harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable � 2 A minimum of two of the following distress, maladaptiveness, irrationality, unpredictability, statistical rarity and observer discomfort

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality � 2. Deviation from Social Norms � a. Abnormal

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality � 2. Deviation from Social Norms � a. Abnormal behavior is seen as vivid and unpredictable and causes observer discomfort � b. Abnormal thinking is irrational and incomprehensible because it differs from accepted ways of thinking � c. If we agree that different cultures have different definitions of normal can there be on definition of abnormal? � 3. Failure to function adequately � a. If a person’s mental state impairs their ability to hold a job or function in society then it is abnormal

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality � b. The person who is abnormal may not

I. Individual Differences and Abnormality � b. The person who is abnormal may not agree with this definition. They may not care about functioning in this society (see pictures on previous slide) � c. Does this set up possible discrimination by the majority against the minority � 4. Ideal mental health � a. Describes a set of ideal criteria that would describe a person with good mental health � b. How many or how much of each of these is necessary to have good mental health.

II. Models of Abnormality �A. Biological aka the Medical Model � 1. The concept

II. Models of Abnormality �A. Biological aka the Medical Model � 1. The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in most cases, cured � 2. When applied to psychological disorders it assumes that these “mental illnesses” can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy. � 3. Focuses on five factors that seem to be relevant to maladaptive behavior: neurotransmitter and hormonal imbalances, genetic vulnerabilities, constitutional liabilities, brain dysfunction and physical deprivation.

II. Models of Abnormality � 4. Tends to ignore or disregard psychological and environmental

II. Models of Abnormality � 4. Tends to ignore or disregard psychological and environmental factors n B. The Psychodynamic Perspectives - Inspired by the work of Freud, it focuses on the internal conflicts caused by trying to control our sex and aggression drives � 1. Uses talk therapy to resolve these conflicts � 2. The Freudian version is practiced less frequently today.

II. Models of Abnormality n C. Humanistic and Existentialist Theories � 1. The Humanistic

II. Models of Abnormality n C. Humanistic and Existentialist Theories � 1. The Humanistic perspective is most closely associated with Carl Rogers and focuses on growth of the self as it strives towards self-actualization. � 2. The existentialist movement developed in Europe at about the same time as the Humanistic movement developed in America. a. One branch of Existential therapy that has found more widespread support is Logotherapy advocated by Viktor Frankl. � b. It is similar to the Humanistic perspective but focuses more on finding the meaning in one’s life. �

II. Models of Abnormality �D. The Behavioral Perspective � 1. Focuses on learning, reinforcement

II. Models of Abnormality �D. The Behavioral Perspective � 1. Focuses on learning, reinforcement and punishment as causes for disorders � 2. Relies on principles of learning to correct disorders n E. The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective � 1. Championed by researchers like Albert Bandura, Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis � 2. Focuses on how our thoughts influence our behaviors. � 3. Studies concepts like Attributional Style and Self. Efficacy

II. Models of Abnormality n F. The Psychosocial and the Biopsychosocial Perspectives �a. Focuses

II. Models of Abnormality n F. The Psychosocial and the Biopsychosocial Perspectives �a. Focuses on how cultural and social factors impact mental health. �b. Some disorders found only in certain cultures � i. Susto = fear of black magic � ii. Taijin-Kyofusho in Japan fear of social faux-pas � iii. Windigo – Algonquin Indians, fear of becoming a cannibal.

Cue 4: Which of the models do you think most adequately describes disorders and

Cue 4: Which of the models do you think most adequately describes disorders and why? �c. The Biopsychosocial Approach is a unified contemporary approach which assumes that biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Also known as the diathesis stress model.

III. Classifying Abnormality �A. The Purpose and History of classification � 1. Purpose of

III. Classifying Abnormality �A. The Purpose and History of classification � 1. Purpose of classification � a. To identify groups or patterns of mental or behavioral symptoms that reliably occur together (a syndrome) and then group these syndromes into a classification system � b. This allows professionals to identify and discuss groups of people. � c. Allows professionals to make a prognosis (prediction about the future course) for the individual � d. Allows for the investigation into the causes (etiology) of the disorder � e. Allows for the development of common treatments.

III. Classifying Abnormality � 2. History of classification � a. First system devised by

III. Classifying Abnormality � 2. History of classification � a. First system devised by Emil Kraepelin in 1883 � b. He believed mental disorders could be diagnosed from observable behaviors just like medical diseases �B. Classification Systems � 1. Two major systems are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revision (DSM-IV TR) created by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) now updated to the DSM-V, and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) created by the World Health Organization.

III. Classifying Abnormality � 2. Differences – � a. The ICD classifies some of

III. Classifying Abnormality � 2. Differences – � a. The ICD classifies some of the disorders under different names and under different headings � b. The ICD is has no separate axes like the DSM – the new DSM-V also has not separate axis � c. The ICD is more likely to include causes not just symptoms like the DCM

II. Dissociative Disorders n A. Dissociative Disorders = Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes

II. Dissociative Disorders n A. Dissociative Disorders = Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts and feelings due to psychological factors n B. Specific Dissociative Disorders � 1. Dissociative amnesia = partial or total loss of important personal information that cannot be explained as ordinary forgetfulness, usually as the result of stress or psychological trauma

II. Dissociative Disorders � 2. Dissociative Fugue = characterized by sudden, unexpected travel away

II. Dissociative Disorders � 2. Dissociative Fugue = characterized by sudden, unexpected travel away from home, with an inability to recall one’s past. Includes confusion over personal identity and often the assumption of a partial or complete new personality Cue 8: Do media representations of people faking Fugue states like in Breaking Bad negatively impact people with this disorder? Story about teacher with Fugue

II. Dissociative Disorders � 3. Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly multiple personality disorder) = rare

II. Dissociative Disorders � 3. Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly multiple personality disorder) = rare - characterized by the existence of two or more distinct personalities a. the original personality is unaware of the other(s) � b. Often times the other personalities are aware of the original and each other � c. each has its own name and distinct behavior pattern � d. diagnosis is very controversial � e. even brain wave evidence is considered suspect � f. During the take over by the alters the original has an inability to recall what has occurred that goes beyond normal forgetfulness �