- Slides: 15
INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES VS. USE OF PESTICIDE AS TOOLS FOR PLANT PROTECTION IN AGRICULTURE PREPARED BY Arpit Kumar Mishra M. SC(Ag) Entomology prev. year
OUTLINE �INTRODUCTION �CONSUMPTION PATTERN �COMPARISION �SUCCESSFULL EXAMPLES OF INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY �MERITS AND DEMERITS �PESTICIDES �CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY: Indigenous is associated with people originating or developing naturally in a particular land, region, or environment. So the technology evolved by indigenous people are indigenous technology.
PESTICIDES : Pesticides a re substances that are meant to control pests or weeds. In general, a pesticide is a chemical or biological agent (such as a virus, bacterium, antimicrobial, or disinfectant) that deters, incapacitates, kills, or otherwise discourages pests.
Consumption pattern of pesticides
COMPARISION INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY �ANCIENT BASED TECHNOLOGY �ECO-FRIENDLY �BALANCE BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT &LIVELIHOOD �DIVERSIFICATION OF FARMING �BASED ON LEIA (LOW EXTERNAL INPUT AGRICULTURE) PESTICIDES �MODERN BASED TECHNOLOGY �NON ECO-FRIENDLY �GREAT DAMAGE TO THE ENVIRONMENT &LIVELIHOOD �LACK OF DIVERSITY IN THE FARMING SYSTEM �BASED ON HIEA ( HIGH EXTERNAL INPUT AGRICULTURE )
SUCCESFUL EXAMPLE OF INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES � Cultivating the plant (Semecarpus anacardium) around fields/orchards helps in warding off termites. � It has also been suggested to treat growing plants by coating with sesame (Sesamum indicum) oil cake so that insects could be kept away from attacking them. � A mixture of milk water + kunapajala + smoking with ghee (due to which acrolein is produced) has been used as a sprinkling agent for plant protection.
MERITS OF INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY Ø Low cost approaches. Ø Save ecologial system and bio diversity. Ø It is based on human experiences on mass scale, dynamic and changing. Ø Highest possible adaptability to local culture and environment and put greater weightage on minimizing risks rather than maximizing profit. Ø Indigenous apporaches were based on the local availability of material and human resources to ensure minimal livelihoods for local people.
DEMERITS: �Lack of participatory approach. �Take more time to control of pest. �Lack of Indegenous Technology knowledge. �Low output profit. �Lack of labours. �The unavailibility of organic resources.
MERITS OF PESTICIDES: �Cost Effectiveness : Pesticides are inexpensive to buy and producing good results without costing a lot of money. �Greater yields : It helps in increasing the yield and productivity of crop plants in the field by controlling pests population. �Effective and rapid : Pesticides works better and faster than other alternatives. �Increase food supplies : Pesticides helps to reduce food losses and ensures adequate food supply and increases food production. �Flexibility : The method of using pesticides is easy and flexible to use.
DEMERITS � Reduction of beneficial species : The chemicals used in pesticides are slightly harmful and kills beneficial species of interest and reduces their population. � Kill natural pest enemies : Sometimes pesticides may also eleminates natural enemies of pests such as predators and parasites, leads to increase in population of pests. � Resistance : Promotes genetic resistance. � Poisoning hazards : The pesticides used are hazardous and poisonous which may have toxic effect on infants, childrens and adults if they comes in contact with the body. � Drift of sprays and Vapour : It can drift outside of the area of where was sprayed. � Pollutes the environment : The chemicals used in pesticides may released in air, water and soil easily and pollutes the environment.
FUTURE PROSPECT OF USING INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY � It is the basis for local-level decision in agriculture, health care, food production, education, natural resource management and a host of their activities in rural communities. � It provides useful clue for planning projects for conservation of sustainable uses of natural resources, indigenous health practices etc. � Awareness is growing about the use of indigenous knowledge in development initiatives that could bring long-term benefits, richly complementing and enhancing the contributions of modern inventions. � Therefore there is a need to enmesh these practices for promoting sustainable development & Indigenous technology of agriculture.
Conclusion �Formal pest and disease management knowledge and ecological knowledge derived through hypotheticodeductive method whereas indigenous pest management knowledge and traditional ecological knowledge. � Although indigenous pest and disease management knowledge fitted well in the age-old land use system, yet need thorough validation in view of changing agricultural.