INDIAN INDEPENDENCE HINDUISM REVIEW Hinduism one of the

  • Slides: 29
Download presentation
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE

HINDUISM REVIEW • Hinduism, one of the world’s oldest surviving religions, is the major

HINDUISM REVIEW • Hinduism, one of the world’s oldest surviving religions, is the major religion of India. Hinduism is a collection of religious beliefs that developed over thousands of years. Hindus worship several gods, which represent different forms of Brahman (most divine spirit). Hinduism stresses that persons reach true enlightenment & happiness only after they free themselves from their earthly desires. • Ritual: Thousands of Hindus make a pilgrimage to India’s Ganges River (sacred site). Most Hindus come to bathe in the water, an act they believe will cleanse and purify them. • Leadership: Gurus or spiritual teachers, play a major role in spreading Hindu beliefs. • Organization: Indian National Congress, Led by Mohandas Gandhi (350 million) (Includes both Hindu and Muslims)

ISLAM (MUSLIM) • Islam is a religion based on the teachings of the prophet

ISLAM (MUSLIM) • Islam is a religion based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad. Followers of Islam, known as Muslims, believe that God revealed these teachings to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. Islam teaches the existence of only one God, called Allah. Muslims believe in all prophets of Judaism and Christianity. They show their devotion by performing lifelong acts of worship known as the Five Pillars of Islam. • Ritual: At least once in their lifetime, all Muslims who are physically and financially able to go to haji, or pilgrimage, travel to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. • Organization: Muslim League (100 million) Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah • Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1 st President of Pakistan): Encouraged all Muslims to resign from the INC and split into two states…India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim)…he believed that Muslims would not be treated fairly in India by Hindu

INDIAN NATIONALISM • By the mid-1800 s, India was under control by the British

INDIAN NATIONALISM • By the mid-1800 s, India was under control by the British East India Company, which was a part of the global race of imperialist European countries vying for territory saturated in rich materials and opportunities. Remember, India was referred to as the Jewel in the Crown, because of its value to Britain in the 1800 s. Although Indian nationalists failed to dismiss foreign control over India in the Sepoy Mutiny (1857), the hope never failed. By 1906, two nationalist groups had formed in India with the primary purpose of eliminated foreign control in India.

Nationalist Groups in India • Indian National Congress • Muslim League • AKA Congress

Nationalist Groups in India • Indian National Congress • Muslim League • AKA Congress Party • 1906 • 1885 • formed to protect Muslim • Hindu • Interests • Muhammand Ali Jinnah- leader

AMRITSAR MASSACRE • After World War I the nationalistic feeling in India continued to

AMRITSAR MASSACRE • After World War I the nationalistic feeling in India continued to grow. The British had promised Indians that their government would implement a series of reforms that would eventually lead to an independently governed India if Indians enlisted in the British Army. Hopeful, millions of Indians did enlist in the British Army. Nevertheless, the British did not honor their promise. Instead, Indians were once again treated like inferiors. This treatment sparked numerous radical, violent protests against the British rule. In reaction, Britain passed the Rowlatt Acts: laws that allowed the British government to jail protesters without trial for as long as 2 years

AMRITSAR MASSACRE • 10, 000 Hindus and Muslims gathered to protest the Rowlatt Act-

AMRITSAR MASSACRE • 10, 000 Hindus and Muslims gathered to protest the Rowlatt Act- 1919 • purpose to fast, pray, and listen to political speeches • British government banned public meetings- and believed the demonstrators were defying orders • British troops were ordered to fire on crowd- killing 400 and wounding 1, 200 • Result: sparked anger and nationalist feelings across India- new quest for independence

GANDHI • Shortly after the devastating events of the Amritsar Massacre, nationalist Mohandas K.

GANDHI • Shortly after the devastating events of the Amritsar Massacre, nationalist Mohandas K. Gandhi emerged as the leader of the Indian independence movement in the 1920 s. Gandhi’s strategies to fight foreign domination were embedded by strong religious beliefs. His beliefs derived from the blending of multiple religions, including Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Gandhi attracted millions of followers and adopted the nickname, Mahatma, which meant “Great Soul”- due to his kind-nature and tolerant beliefs. He embraced democracy and nationalism, rejected the caste system, asking for equal rights for all including women. Gandhi utilized three main techniques as the leader of the independence movement.

GANDHI’S 3 TECHNIQUES 1. Non-cooperation: civil disobedience: deliberate and public refusal to obey an

GANDHI’S 3 TECHNIQUES 1. Non-cooperation: civil disobedience: deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law • purpose to weaken British authority and economy • nonviolent- to achieve independence 2. Boycotts: refusal to buy British goods, attend government schools, pay British taxes, or vote in elections- Indians wore handmade clothes • result- British cloth sales dropped sharply in India 3. Strikes: thousands of Indians were arrested due to the overwhelming amount of strikes and demonstrations- that often turned into violent riots despite Gandhi’s plea for nonviolence

SALT MARCH • Under the British law, Indians could only buy salt from the

SALT MARCH • Under the British law, Indians could only buy salt from the government and were also forced to pay tax on their salt purchases. Indians despised these Salt Acts and they felt that these acts violated their rights. Therefore, in 1930 Gandhi organized a peaceful demonstration to defy the hated Salt Acts. Gandhi and hundreds of followers walked an estimated 240 miles to the seacoast in order to collect seawater to make their own salt through the process of evaporation. This event became known as the Salt March and was the first peaceful organized demonstration conducted by the Indians after they had declared independence after the Amritsar Massacre. Salt March: 1930 -demonstration walk against Salt Laws- led by Gandhi

SALT ACT DEMONSTRATIONS • Shortly after the peaceful demonstration, more demonstrations were being organized

SALT ACT DEMONSTRATIONS • Shortly after the peaceful demonstration, more demonstrations were being organized to illustrate frustrations with the Salt Acts. Demonstrators planned a march to the location where the British government processed the salt. Here, demonstrators planned to shut down the production. Nevertheless, this demonstration did not maintain its peaceful predecessor. Instead, demonstrators were met with the force of British officers’ steel-tipped clubs and aggression. Results of Salt Act Demonstrations Gandhi won support demonstrations took place all throughout India- over 60, 000 people were arrested, including Gandhi

SALT MARCH • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=wj 8 Gf 1 rk. JK 8

SALT MARCH • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=wj 8 Gf 1 rk. JK 8

INDIAN SELF RULE • By 1935, Gandhi’s strategies of civil disobedience had paid off

INDIAN SELF RULE • By 1935, Gandhi’s strategies of civil disobedience had paid off and the Indian people were gradually gaining more political power. The British Parliament passed the Government of India Act, which provided local self-governments and limited democratic elections. Although this was a major step for Indian nationalists, it was still far from Indian independence. Government of India Act: 1935 - Britain grants local self-government with limited democratic elections -not total independence

RESULT OF INDIA SELF RULE increased tension between Hindus and Muslims

RESULT OF INDIA SELF RULE increased tension between Hindus and Muslims

STRUGGLES WITHIN INDIA Independence • In 1939, the movement towards Indian independence intensified with

STRUGGLES WITHIN INDIA Independence • In 1939, the movement towards Indian independence intensified with the welcoming of World War II. Without the consent of India’s elected representatives, the British government committed India’s armed forces into the war. As before, Gandhi took control and launched a nonviolent campaign of non-cooperation with the British. Numerous Indian nationalists were imprisoned for their involvement in the demonstrations, including Gandhi. Nevertheless, by 1942 the British government began promising reform in order to gain the support of the Indian nationalists; however, independence was still out of the question.

STRUGGLES WITHIN INDIA Religion • In addition to the struggles between Indian nationalists and

STRUGGLES WITHIN INDIA Religion • In addition to the struggles between Indian nationalists and the British, a struggle between Indian religious groups also began to grow. India encompassed two main religions, Hinduism (350 million) and Islam (Muslim) (100 million). Both religions feared the outcome of what would happen if the other religion became dominate in an independent India.

Indian Political Parties Indian National Congress ØCongress Party ØHindu Muslim League ØMuslim Øfounded to

Indian Political Parties Indian National Congress ØCongress Party ØHindu Muslim League ØMuslim Øfounded to protect Muslim interests Øwould never accept Indian independence under a Hindudominated party

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE As World War II came to an end and the Indian independence

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE As World War II came to an end and the Indian independence movement not losing any of its momentum, Britain was forced with a couple big decisions. #1: whether or not to grant India independence #2: decide which religious group will resume leadership of India As the new Indian government was being devised, multiple riots between the two religious groups, Hindus and Muslims, erupted. In August 1946 four days of violence in Calcutta resulted in the death of more than 5, 000 people and left another 15, 000 more injured. As a result, the British government decided on creating a partition, which would separate India into two separate nations: Pakistan and India. This partition took effect in July 1947.

Partition of India: July 16, 1947 - India divided into two separate nations India:

Partition of India: July 16, 1947 - India divided into two separate nations India: ØCentral India ØHindu Pakistan: ØEast and West of India ØMuslim

INDIAN PARTITION READING

INDIAN PARTITION READING

BATTLE FOR KASHMIR • Shortly after the partition, India and Pakistan began fighting for

BATTLE FOR KASHMIR • Shortly after the partition, India and Pakistan began fighting for control over Kashmir was an area in North India that bordered with the Northeastern side of Pakistan. Despite Kashmir’s Hindu ruler, the majority of Kashmir’s population was Muslim. Thus fighting between the two religious groups over Kashmir’s control continued until the United Nations arranged a cease-fire in 1949. This arrangement left a third of Kashmir under Pakistani control and the rest under Indian control. Nevertheless, the ceasefire did not solve much of anything, and fighting between India and Pakistan over the control of Kashmir continues even today.

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU • On August 15, 1947 India officially gained its independence and become

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU • On August 15, 1947 India officially gained its independence and become the world’s largest democracy. A man by the name of Jawaharlal Nehru became India’s first prime minister and led India for 17 years of independence. During his reign, Jawaharlal Nehru emphasized: democracy unity economic modernization

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU • Nehru worked hard to promote prosperity within India. Øestablished alliance with

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU • Nehru worked hard to promote prosperity within India. Øestablished alliance with non-aligned countries during Cold War Øreorganized states by language Øindustrialized Øsponsored social reform: elevated status of lower caste and expanded rights In 1964, Nehru died and left the Congress Party with no true leader to hold together the many political conflicts that existed within India. In 1966, Indira Gandhi, Nehru’s daughter, became the chosen prime minister. She was re-elected again in 1980 after a brief period out of office.

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=e. P-mv 5 Ij. Fz. Y

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=e. P-mv 5 Ij. Fz. Y

MODERN INDIA READING • After reading answer the 2 comprehension questions

MODERN INDIA READING • After reading answer the 2 comprehension questions

PAKISTAN • Although both India and Pakistan had spent years involved in conflict, Pakistan

PAKISTAN • Although both India and Pakistan had spent years involved in conflict, Pakistan had not endured as much as India. Pakistan had originally been divided into two states, East Pakistan and West Pakistan. Between these two states laid 1, 000 miles of Indian Territory. The differences within the two Pakistani states was immense, fore they had different cultures, history, languages, and so on. What they did share, however, was the Islamic religion. Nevertheless, these religious similarities could not repress a brewing civil war between East and West Pakistan.

Pakistani Civil War East Pakistan Ølarger population Ø“ignored” by West Pakistan Øhome of central

Pakistani Civil War East Pakistan Ølarger population Ø“ignored” by West Pakistan Øhome of central government Øfailed to provide international aid to East Pakistan after massive cyclone/tidal wave March 26 1971 - East Pakistan declared itself the independent nation. Bangladesh Civil War between Pakistan and Bangladesh victoriousmore than 1 million died, Pakistan lost 1/7 th its land ½ its population to Bangladesh

BANGLADESH While Pakistan continued on with years of instability, conflict also followed the new

BANGLADESH While Pakistan continued on with years of instability, conflict also followed the new nations of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka as they struggled to prosper with their new independence. The war with Pakistan had destroyed with Bangladesh economy and their true means of communication. Although the task of developing Bangladesh seemed impossible, Sheik Mujibur Rahman took the task and became the nation’s first prime minister. Nevertheless, under Rahman’s rule it became apparent that he was more concerned with increasing his individual power than that of his nation. Shortly after Rahman declared Bangladesh a one-party government, military leaders assassinated him in 1975. Despite his removal, Bangladesh was never able to fully sustain itself under a democratic form of government. Instead, the government is plagued with fraud elections and corruption. The nation’s economy has also failed to reach any true stability. Multiple natural disasters have devastated the country. In 1991, a cyclone hit that was so powerful that it killed an estimated 140, 000 people. These disasters and the growing population have hindered the economy from prospering. Today, the average income is merely $360. 00 a year. Under the leadership of Begum Khaleda Zia, however, who was elected in 2001 - the nation has managed to start working its way towards stability.

TIMELINE

TIMELINE