Improving Air Quality Through Energy Efficiency NJ Clean

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Improving Air Quality Through Energy Efficiency NJ Clean Air Council April 11, 2007 Paul

Improving Air Quality Through Energy Efficiency NJ Clean Air Council April 11, 2007 Paul H. Genoa Director, Policy Development

Overview § Energy efficiency – two dimensions – Demand side, supply side § Nuclear

Overview § Energy efficiency – two dimensions – Demand side, supply side § Nuclear efficiency gains = clean air benefits – Reduced GHG & criteria pollutant emissions § Future nuclear offers non-traditional benefits – Transportations sector emissions reduction – Energy extraction efficiency improvements

U. S. Electricity Generation and Net Summer Capacity Fuel Shares Generation, 2006* * Preliminary

U. S. Electricity Generation and Net Summer Capacity Fuel Shares Generation, 2006* * Preliminary Source: Global Energy Decisions / Energy Information Administration Updated: 4/07 Net Summer Capacity, 2005

U. S. Nuclear Industry Net Electricity Generation and Avoided Emissions 1990 -2006 bk. Wh

U. S. Nuclear Industry Net Electricity Generation and Avoided Emissions 1990 -2006 bk. Wh Increase in nuclear generation from 1990. Equivalent to avoiding 2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide. * Preliminary Source: Global Energy Decisions / Energy Information Administration Updated: 4/07 Nuclear (bk. Wh) 1990 576. 9 2006* 787. 2

Efficiency Yields Economic Performance 2006 Cents per kilowatt-hour U. S. Nuclear Production Cost 2000:

Efficiency Yields Economic Performance 2006 Cents per kilowatt-hour U. S. Nuclear Production Cost 2000: 2. 01 cents/k. Wh 2001: 1. 90 cents/k. Wh 2002: 1. 90 cents/k. Wh 2003: 1. 86 cents/k. Wh 2004: 1. 83 cents/k. Wh 2005: 1. 77 cents/k. Wh 2006: 1. 65 cents/k. Wh* Source: Global Energy Decisions * NEI estimate for 2006 5

Emissions Reductions in Perspective § The UNFCCC estimates that the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development

Emissions Reductions in Perspective § The UNFCCC estimates that the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) will generate 1. 2 billion tonnes of emission reductions by the end of 2012 § Worldwide, nuclear power avoids the emissions of around 2 billion tonnes of CO 2 annually Source: UNFCCC CDM Statistics (http: //cdm. unfccc. int/statistics) and International Energy Agency. Emissions avoided by nuclear power are calculated using an average fossil fuel emissions rate that is weighted by the ratio of projected coal and gas 6

World Nuclear Generation 1973 – 2005, Billion k. Wh World nuclear generation avoids more

World Nuclear Generation 1973 – 2005, Billion k. Wh World nuclear generation avoids more than 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide each year since 1992. 1 Source: International Atomic Energy Agency 1 One billion k. Wh from nuclear avoids about one million tons of carbon dioxide. Updated: 6/06

U. S. Electric Power Industry CO 2 Avoided Million Metric Tons 2006 Source: Emissions

U. S. Electric Power Industry CO 2 Avoided Million Metric Tons 2006 Source: Emissions avoided are calculated using regional and national fossil fuel emissions rates from the Environmental Protection Agency and plant generation data from the Energy Information Administration. Updated: 4/07

Nuclear Energy Has an Environmental Impact Comparable to Renewables Life Cycle Emissions for Various

Nuclear Energy Has an Environmental Impact Comparable to Renewables Life Cycle Emissions for Various Electricity Sources Source: “Hydropower-Internalised Costs and Externalised Benefits, ” Frans H. Koch. International Energy Agency 9

Nuclear Energy is the Largest Source of Emission Free Electricity in the U. S.

Nuclear Energy is the Largest Source of Emission Free Electricity in the U. S. Source: Global Energy Decisions / Energy Information Administration

Nuclear Power Dominates the U. S. Voluntary CO 2 Reductions Program Source: Energy Information

Nuclear Power Dominates the U. S. Voluntary CO 2 Reductions Program Source: Energy Information Administration Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases 2004

U. S. Nuclear Plant Uprates Cumulative Capacity Additions at Existing Plants 2000 -2011 1,

U. S. Nuclear Plant Uprates Cumulative Capacity Additions at Existing Plants 2000 -2011 1, 383 MWe Expected 1, 057 MWe Under Review 2, 909 MWe Approved 12 Source: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Restart of Browns Ferry Unit 1: On Schedule, On Budget § On schedule to

Restart of Browns Ferry Unit 1: On Schedule, On Budget § On schedule to restart in May 2007 § On budget at $1. 8 billion § Adds 1, 280 MW of capacity § Will bring U. S. nuclear fleet to 104 reactors 13

Renewal of Operating Licenses Continues 25 Intend to Renew 22 Unannounced 48 Granted 8

Renewal of Operating Licenses Continues 25 Intend to Renew 22 Unannounced 48 Granted 8 in 2006 1 in 2007 8 Under NRC Review 6 Filed in 2006 Source: U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 14

The NGNP Concept – HTGR Demonstration High Efficiency Hydrogen Plant HTGR and Turbo -Generator

The NGNP Concept – HTGR Demonstration High Efficiency Hydrogen Plant HTGR and Turbo -Generator Process Heat Application 15