- Slides: 32
IMPORTANT SUPREME COURT CASES IN AMERICA HISTORY
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
When was it? 1803 What was it about? And who was involved? ___Outgoing President John Adams appointed Federalist judges at the last minute nicknamed “Midnight Judges. ” After the new President, Democrat-Republic Thomas Jefferson, took office he ordered his new secretary of state, James Madison, to not deliver the commissions and since they weren’t delivered the judges could not take office. William Marbury sued Madison for his job and was allowed by law to make the complaint directly to the Supreme Court. How was it decided? The Court and John Marshall ruled against ordering Madison to deliver Marbury’s commission. Implications for the future? Supreme Court established its power of Judicial Review. They could now decide constitutionality of the other two branches’ actions.
I. Marbury v Madison 1803 A. Prior to Adams leaving office Congress (Federalist dominated) tried to assert power over the Judicial Branch B. Judiciary Act of 1801 1. Created 16 new federal judgeships 2. Adams approves appointments during last days as president 3. Became known as the “Midnight Judges” 4. Way Adams (Federalists) could protect country against Jefferson’s ideals
I. Marbury v Madison 1803 cont C. William Marbury (“midnight judge”) D. Appointed by Adams to serve in Washington, D. C. E. James Madison the Secretary of State 1. Refuses to allow Marbury his bench 2. Marbury refuses to step down 3. Madison asks Supreme Court to step in
I. Marbury v Madison 1803 cont F. John Marshall-Chief Justice (appointed by Adams) 1. Federalist from VA 2. Acted on over 500 cases G. Marbury v Madison ruling 1. Marbury had right to judge position 2. Supreme Court could only hear cases on appeal 3. Declare part of Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional
I. Marbury v Madison 1803 cont H. Established the principal of judicial review-federal courts have the power to declare laws unconstitutional
Mc. Culloch v Maryland 1816
II. Mc. Culloch v Maryland When was it? 1819 What was it about? And who was involved? Congress set up the Second Bank of the United States in 1816. Several states taxed the branches of the federal banks within their borders. The Maryland branch refused to pay the tax so Maryland sued the bank’s cashier James Mc. Culloch. How was it decided? Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Constitution allowed the establishment of the National Bank but that the Constitution didn’t allow a state to tax the Bank. The “power to tax includes the power to destroy. ” Implications for the future? Gave more power to the Federal government under the “necessary and proper clause” as part of the loose constructionist view of the constitution
II. Mc. Culloch v Maryland A. Court case over the Second National Bank 1. Maryland tried to destroy the National Bank by taxing the National Bank to protect its states banks B. National Bank refused to pay taxes and sued the state of Maryland
II. Mc. Culloch v Maryland 1816 C. Supreme Court Issues 1. Was the Bank constitutional? 2. Did Maryland have right to tax National Bank? D. Court ruling (Chief Justice Marshall) 1. Bank was constitutional (falls under “necessary and proper” clause) 2. Maryland (states) could NOT tax National Bank a. “Power to tax is the power to destroy” b. States could not take away national powers
Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824
III. Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 A. Called the “Steamboat Case”, this Supreme Court Case was over the state of New York attempting to give a monopoly of water-borne commerce between New York and New Jersey. B. Marshall ruled that only Congress and the Federal Government can govern interstate commerce. C. This weakened states’ rights and strengthened the powers/rights of the federal government.
Review of cases under Chief Justice John Marshall
IV. Judicial Branch under John Marshall A. Key decisions by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia established the power of the federal courts to declare laws unconstitutional (“judicial review” – Marbury v. Madison) & prohibited the states from taxing agencies of the federal government (“the power to tax is the power to destroy” – Mc. Culloch v. Maryland.
Chief Justice John Marshall, Federalist
IV. Judicial Branch under John Marshall B. The doctrine of judicial review set forth in Marbury v. Madison, the doctrine of implied powers set forth in Mc. Culloch v. Maryland, and a broadly national view of economic affairs set forth in Gibbons v. Ogden are the foundation blocks of the Court’s authority to mediate disagreements between branches of governments, levels of government, and competing business interests.
IV. Judicial Branch under John Marshall C. “Doctrine of Implied Powers” = “Necessary and Proper” Clause
IV. Judicial Branch under John Marshall D. Questions to ponder: Was John Marshall demonstrate Judicial Activism or Judicial Restraint? What does that mean? How did he demonstrate it? What was the overall trend for the cases that John Marshall presided over? Did he increase or decrease federal power?
V. Wabash v. Illinois
V. Wabash v. Illinois Wabash v. Illinois When was it? 1886 What was it about? And who was involved? Many railroad companies were challenging Granger laws in court. How was it decided? Ruled that state governments had no power to regulate interstate commerce. Implications for the future? Established that only the federal government had that right to regulate interstate commerce.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
VI. Plessy v. Ferguson A. “Jim Crow” laws 1. Forced separation of the races in public places (South) 2. “Jim Crow” laws limited African Americans’ freedom B. Plessy v. Ferguson 1. Supreme Court Case 2. Ruling a. “Separate but equal” is okay b. Does not violate the 14 th amendment c. Ruling upholds “Jim Crow” laws of the era
VII. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
VII. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 A. During Progressive Era 1. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896) 2. Established “separate but equal” B. Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, KS (1954) 1. Segregated schools are unequal and must desegregate 2. Included a case in VA (Prince Edward County)
VII. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 C. People 1. Thurgood Marshall – NAACP Legal Defense Team 2. Oliver Hill - NAACP Legal Defense Team in VA 3. VA Response a. Massive resistance - some school systems closed b. Private academies were established c. Many whites leave urban school systems (White Flight)
VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan
VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan A. Membership of the U. S. Supreme Court has included women and minorities such as: a. Sandra Day O’Connor b. Ruth Bader Ginsburg c. Clarence Thomas
VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan B. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1940 s, 1950 s, and 1960 s provided a model that other groups have used to extend civil rights and equal justice. C. The Supreme Court protects the individual rights enumerated in the Constitution of the U. S.
VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan D. The Supreme Court identified a constitutional basis for right to privacy that is protected from government interference E. The Supreme Court invalidates legislative acts and executive actions that the justices agree exceed the authority granted to government officials by the Constitution of the U. S.
VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan F. Reagan Revolution: Tax cuts Transfer of responsibilities to state gov’ts Appointment of judges/justices who exercised “judicial restraint” Reduction in the number and scope of gov’t programs and regulations Strengthened American military
VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan G. What is Judicial Restraint? It was the idea that the Supreme Court Justices shouldn’t allow their personal opinions to influence their decisions but should follow the lead of Congress and the President. Therefore, if Congress passes a particular law then the Supreme Court shouldn’t rule it unconstitutional unless they have a really, really good reason to do so. H. Do you think the John Marshall Supreme Court operated with Judicial Restraint or Judicial Activism? How about the Warren Court (ruled over Brown v. Board of Education)? I. Which do you agree with?