- Slides: 18
Importance of vegetable farming Ø Cultivation of vegetables occupies an important place in agricultural development and economy of the country. Ø Vegetable farming is an important source of income. Ø Vegetables are indispensable part of balanced diet. Ø It is the cheapest source of natural protective food. Ø Vegetable farming gives higher yield per unit area within the shortest possible time which ultimately increases the income. Ø An important source for earning foreign exchange through export of vegetables.
Types of Gardening 1. Kitchen gardening. 2. Market gardening. 3. Truck gardening. 4. Vegetable forcing 5. Gardening for processing. 6. Garden for vegetable seed production. 7. Floating garden. 8. Organic vegetable gardening
Kitchen gardening/Home garden Growing of vegetable crops in residential houses to meet the requirement of vegetables of a family all the year around. Importance 1. Efficient and effective use of land for growing essential vegetables by a family. 2. Saves some money as fresh vegetables are quite costly in the market besides being more healthy than those available in the market 3. Small contribution to the vegetable production. 4. Constitute a very healthy hobby and the spare time of the family is well utilized. 5. Aim/ plan of the kitchen garden should be in a way that continuous supply of vegetables to a family throughout the year is ensured. 6. We can get pesticide residue free vegetables. 7. Training/education of children and to develop a sense of co-operation/ achievement and dignity of labour
Design of Kitchen Garden Design of kitchen garden depends upon - Features of the particular piece of land - its extent - situation etc. Principles followed in designing the layout of kitchen garden Ø Location and site Ø Proper layout Ø Cropping pattern: The most suitable vegetables are those which give high yield per unit area. Beans, cabbage, carrot, leek, lettuce, onion, parsley, garden pea, pepper, radish, spinach, and tomato are suitable for kitchen gardening. Ø Size 25 x 10 m is ideal for family of 5 persons. Ø Rectangular shape is preffered
1. South east aspect is the most preferred for having more sun light. 2. For kitchen garden land should be selected in the backyard of the house (easyr to work/ manage and make use of kitchen waste water. 3. Layout of the garden should be such that it looks attractive and allow access to all the parts. 4. The land should be laid out in small plots with narrow path borders. 5. In homes where no space is available one can grow vegetables in pots or boxes. Preference should be given to such vegetables which produce more number of fruits from an individual plant e. g. cucurbits, tomato, brinjal, chilli etc. 6. Climbing type vegetables like cucurbits, pea beans etc. can be trained on the fences. 7. Several sowings of one particular crop at short intervals should be done to ensure a steady supply of vegetables. 8. Quick growing fruits trees like papaya, banana, lime etc. should be located on one side of the garden, preferably on Northern side so that the shading effect is minimum. 9. Ridges which separates the beds, should be utilized for growing root crops like radish, turnip, beet, carrot. 10. Early maturing crops should be planted together in continuous rows so that the area may be available for growing/ planting next crop. 11. The inter-space of some crops which are slow growing and take long duration to mature like cabbage, cauliflower, brinjal should be used for growing some quick growing crops like radish, turnip, palak, lettuce etc.
Market Gardening Ø This is a type of garden which produces vegetables for local market. Ø Earlier this type of garden was confined to the near vicinity of the cities in general where a quick means of transport were not available. Ø Even today most of the market gardens are located within a range of 15 -20 kms of a city. Ø The cropping pattern of these gardens depend on the demand of the local market. Ø Intensive methods of cultivation are followed as the land is very costly. Ø In general market gardener prefers to grow early varieties Ø Market gardener should be good salesman as he may have to sell his own produce. Ø He must be a versatile person as he will have to grow a number of vegetables throughout the year. Ø The high cost of land labour is compensated by the availability of municipal compost, sludge and water near some cities and high return of the produce.
Truck Gardening v This is a type of garden which produces specific vegetables in relatively large quantities for distant markets. v Truck gardens, in general, follow a more extensive and less intensive methods of cultivation than market garden. v The word truck has no relationship with a motor truck but it is derived from french word ‘troquer’ means “to barter”. v The location of this type of garden is determined by the edaphic and climatic factors suitable for raising a particular crop. v The commodities raised are usually sold through middle men. v The truck gardener should be a specialized person. v He should be proficient in large scale cultivation and handling of some special crops. v He must follow the mechanical methods of cultivation to reduce the cost of cultivation. v The net income is also less as the total cost of production includes the charges of transportation and middle men. v With the development of quick and easy system of transportation , the distinction between market and truck garden is continuously diminishing.
Vegetable Garden for Processing Ø These gardens are around vegetable processing factories. Ø Such gardens ensure regular supply of the vegetables to the factories. Ø They are getting popular due to establishment of processing industries by the corporate sector. Ø Earlier only a few factories existed which were dependent upon local markets only. Ø These gardens specialize in growing only selected vegetables in bulk. Ø A heavier soil is chosen to obtain high and continuous yield rather than early yield. Ø These gardens are required to grow particular varieties for canning, dehydration or freezing. Ø The prices are paid on contract basis on weight and quantity of the produce. Ø The return may be low but the cost of marketing and the transportation charges are negligible. Ø The prospects of future development are quite bright as one can take it as an entrepreneurship
Vegetable Garden for Forcing
Vegetable Garden for Forcing Ø Vegetables are produced out of their normal season under forcing structures Ø Greenhouses, cold frames, and hotbeds are common structures used. Ø These structures provide ideal environment required by a crop for proper growth and development. Ø Generally, tomato, cucumber and capsicum are grown. ü Vegetables which offer good opportunity to produce quality product along with good income should be preferred. v Such gardens ensure year round vegetable production in one or the other part of the country. Ø River bed cultivation is also a type of vegetable forcing. Ø Pro-trays or poly-bags may be used for raising early seedlings in small protected structures.
Vegetable Garden for Seed Production Ø Good seed is the base of any successful farming industry. Ø Seed production is a specialized field of vegetable growing. Ø A thorough knowledge of the crop, its growth habit, mode of pollination, proper isolation distance are of prime importance for quality seed production. Ø Specialized knowledge is required to handle the seed crop i. e. curing, threshing, cleaning, grading, packing and storage. Types of seed: (i) Nucleus/breeder seed is produced by the person or organization which gives out the variety. (ii) Foundation seed is multiplied by government departments or by organization like NSC. (iii) Certified/Registered seeds usually multiplied by grower. Ø This is an expanding industry in India and has a good future. Ø India has varied climatic conditions extending from the temperate Himalayas to tropical South. Thus seeds of temperate and tropical vegetables can be raised in one or the other part of the country. Ø There is an immense potential of export of vegetable seed Ø The seed act has been enforced to maintain the quality of the seed.
Floating Vegetable Garden Typical example of floating gardens is the Dal lake of Kashmir valley. Most of summer vegetables are supplied to Srinagar from these gardens. A floating base is made from the roots of typha grass. Once this floating base is ready, seedlings are transplanted on leaf compost made of vegetation growing wild in the lake. All the inter-cultural operations and occasional sprinkling of water are done from boats. This type of gardening is a specialized technique and an art in itself.
Organic Vegetable Gardening In 1980, organic farming was defined by the USDA as a system that excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and growth regulators. Quality Food Soil flora and fauna Organic Farming Environ ment Soil fertility (Ganesh et al, 2008) Organic Agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs. (FAO and WHO, 1993)
• Approaches and production inputs of organic farming • Strict avoidance of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides • Use of crop rotations, crop residues, cover crops mulches, animal manures, composts and green manures • Organic fertilizers and soil amendments • Biostimulants, humates and seaweeds, compost teas and herbal teas • Marine, animal, and plant by-products • Biorational, microbial, and botanical pesticides, and other natural pest control products v The Organic Foods Production Act, a section of the 1990 Farm Bill, enabled the USDA to develop a national program of universal standards, certification accreditation, and food labeling. v In April 2001, the USDA released the Final Rule of the National Organic Program. This federal law stipulates, in considerable detail, exactly what a grower can and cannot do to produce and market a product as organic.
Hydroponics and Aeroponics The word “hydroponic” has been derived from the Greek word “hydro” means water and “ponos” means labor or work. Hydroponics refers to technology of growing plants in nutrient solution with or without the use of substrate(e. g. gravel, sand, vermiculite, rock wool, peat moss or sawdust) to provide mechanical support to the plants. The word “aeroponic” is derived from the Greek word “aero” means air and “ponos” means labor or work. The roots hang in the air and are misted with nutrient solution Basic Hydroponic System Basic Aeroponic System