Imperialism Policy by which strong nations extend their

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Imperialism • Policy by which strong nations extend their political, military, and economic control

Imperialism • Policy by which strong nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories.

REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM 1. Search for new markets 2. Spread American culture and governmental

REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM 1. Search for new markets 2. Spread American culture and governmental ideas 3. Spread Christian religion 4. Expand Military power in the area 5. Trading ports and outlets to Asia and the Pacific Nations wanted to – extend their power in the world – gain access to raw materials 6. Competition with European countries in Africa and Asia

Economic benefits of imperialism • Colonies provided raw materials and natural resources – Rubber,

Economic benefits of imperialism • Colonies provided raw materials and natural resources – Rubber, sugar, tea, iron, petroleum, & timber • Extractive Economies!!!!! Imperial country removed raw materials from colony & ships them home to create products!!!

ALFRED T. MAHAN • He was a military historian and U. S. Navy officer

ALFRED T. MAHAN • He was a military historian and U. S. Navy officer • The Influence of Sea Power Upon History • Used the quote – “He who controlled the seas controlled the world”

The Influence of Sea Power • Mahan pushed Congress and the Presidents to build

The Influence of Sea Power • Mahan pushed Congress and the Presidents to build a modern fleet • He advocated establishing foreign bases in Cuba, Hawaii, and the Philippines – Places for ships to refuel and resupply • U. S. expanded and updated Navy • Built steel-plated and steampowered battleships like the U. S. S. Maine • U. S. Navy— 3 rd largest world navy by 1900

Social Darwinism fuels imperialism • Survival of the fittest in society • Belief in

Social Darwinism fuels imperialism • Survival of the fittest in society • Belief in racial, national, and cultural superiority • Justified ruling over “inferior” peoples • Americans concerned about being left out of grab for colonies and not surviving • Manifest Destiny taken into new regions of the World

Josiah Strong • Religious philosopher • Encouraged missionaries to travel the world • EDUCATE

Josiah Strong • Religious philosopher • Encouraged missionaries to travel the world • EDUCATE and CHRISTIANIZE • Later apologized for RACIST imperialism

Frederick Jackson Turner • Historian • 1893—Presented The Significance of the Frontier in American

Frederick Jackson Turner • Historian • 1893—Presented The Significance of the Frontier in American History at the Chicago World Fair • Frontier was a “safety valve” • Place where Americans could go to make a fresh start and/or make fortunes • Americans now spanned continent—Turner’s followers urged oversees expansion as the new frontier

MATTHEW PERRY • Commodore Matthew Perry sailed fleet of warships into Tokyo Bay, Japan

MATTHEW PERRY • Commodore Matthew Perry sailed fleet of warships into Tokyo Bay, Japan • Japan had closed off ports to rest of the world • Japanese thought Perry’s steamships were “giant dragons puffing smoke”

Treaty with Japan • March, 1854—Perry made a treaty that opened trade with Japan

Treaty with Japan • March, 1854—Perry made a treaty that opened trade with Japan for America Terms of Treaty 1. Peace & friendship between the U. S. & Japan 2. Opening of 2 ports at Shimoda and Hakodate 3. Help & protection for shipwrecked American ships & persons on Japanese Coast 4. Permission for American ships to buy supplies, coal, water, and other provisions at Japanese ports.

Power in the Pacific • 1867—U. S. takes Midway Islands • 1875 & 1887—Treaties

Power in the Pacific • 1867—U. S. takes Midway Islands • 1875 & 1887—Treaties with Hawaiian Islands increased trade & gained right to build a naval base at Pearl Harbor • COALING AND FUELING STATION

Purchase of Alaska • 1867—Purchased from Russia by Secretary of State William Seward for

Purchase of Alaska • 1867—Purchased from Russia by Secretary of State William Seward for $7. 2 million • Vast Tundra – “Seward’s Folly” – “Seward’s Icebox” SOUTH WAS UNDER RECONSTRUCTION STILL

ALASKA!!!!!! • Largely increases size of U. S. • Rich in resources • Timber

ALASKA!!!!!! • Largely increases size of U. S. • Rich in resources • Timber • Oil • Gold • Abundance of fish & wildlife

LATIN AMERICA U. S. businessmen wanted to expand their trade 1889—Secretary of State James

LATIN AMERICA U. S. businessmen wanted to expand their trade 1889—Secretary of State James Blaine sponsored the First International Pan-American Conference 1. Discussed benefits of trade between countries 2. Led to Pan-American Highway link between the U. S. , Central America, & South America in 1920 s

The Monroe Doctrine • 1823—U. S. would protect states in the Western Hemisphere from

The Monroe Doctrine • 1823—U. S. would protect states in the Western Hemisphere from European Aggression • 1895—Border dispute between British Guiana & Venezuela • US threatened WAR • Britain backed off • Established U. S. power in Western Hemisphere

American Presence in Hawaii • Since the late 1700 s, Hawaii had been a

American Presence in Hawaii • Since the late 1700 s, Hawaii had been a stop for U. S. merchant ships on their way to East Asia • Missionaries established Christian churches & schools • American planters established sugar cane plantations • Group of planters/ businessmen form the Hawaiian League • Goal was to overthrow the King and control Hawaii both politically & economically • SANFORD DOLE was the American BOSS in HAWAII

The King & the bayonet constitution 1887—King Kalakaua forced to amend and sign Hawaii's

The King & the bayonet constitution 1887—King Kalakaua forced to amend and sign Hawaii's new constitution to limit voting rights to only wealthy white landowners & planters

Mc. Kinley Tariff • 1890 s— Mc. Kinley Tariff placed a tariff on Hawaiian

Mc. Kinley Tariff • 1890 s— Mc. Kinley Tariff placed a tariff on Hawaiian sugar grown by American citizens overseas • Made it more expensive than sugar grown in the U. S. (Florida, Louisiana, Texas) • Feared lower sales/profits

Queen Liliuokalani • 1891—King Kalakaua died • His sister took over • Very nationalistic

Queen Liliuokalani • 1891—King Kalakaua died • His sister took over • Very nationalistic • Resented power of white planters • Abolished the Bayonet Constitution

AMERICAN LED OVERTHROW • 1893—American planters overthrew queen • Backed by U. S. officials

AMERICAN LED OVERTHROW • 1893—American planters overthrew queen • Backed by U. S. officials and United States Marines – John Stevens, U. S. Minister of Hawaii ordered the Marines to help rebels seize power • New government established by white planters - SANFORD DOLE

Annexation of Hawaii • President Harrison signed the treaty to annex Hawaii shortly before

Annexation of Hawaii • President Harrison signed the treaty to annex Hawaii shortly before he left office – Senate could not approve it before Cleveland took office • 1893—Cleveland took he refused to sign the agreement & apologized for the wrong done to the Hawaiian people • 1897—William Mc. Kinley and his administration favored the annexation of Hawaii • 1898—Congress officially annexes Hawaii as U. S. Territory