- Slides: 37
Imperialism in Africa
Before Imperialism v Diversity 1, 000 languages and groups v Various sizes of political bodies (from villages to empires) v Christian, Muslim and Traditionalist religions v v Europeans enter the scene 1450 AD They only could build forts on the coasts because of disease and strong African armies v Wanted slaves and refueling stations to reach Asia v
Explorer Dr. David Livingstone v Goal = “Christianity, commerce and civilization” to Africa v Three trips into Africa (1841 -73) v Wrote travel-adventure books about Africa’s beauty and vast natural resources v “Discovered” Victoria Falls
The Scramble for Africa A 33 year period from about 1881 to 1914 when European powers conquered nearly all of Africa.
The Berlin Conference 1884 -1885 v What: Meeting hosted by Otto von Bismarck, leader of Germany, to make rules for claiming territory in Africa. v Rules created: v Colonies had to be "effectively occupied” (planting a flag does not equal ownership) v Had to defend administer the area v By 1913, only Ethiopia and Liberia were independent
Imperialism in Africa Case Studies
Opening What happens to people who don’t unite against a common threat?
Let’s look at a few specific case studies of imperialism in Africa
Case Study: The Congo
Case Study: The Congo Before Imperialism v. Rain forest, plateau v. Early site of iron and copper work v. Bantu speaking peoples v. Traded in ivory, people for slavery
Case Study: The Congo Motives for Imperialism v. Belgian King Leopold II v. Economic v Rubber for shoes and gloves, but especially automobile tires v Ivory, iron, copper v. Ideological v Claimed he wanted to “end the slave trade”
Case Study: The Congo Methods of Imperialism v. Belgian King Leopold II v. Enslaved native Africans v. Ordered the “Force Publique” to beat, mutilate and kill to meet quotas for rubber and ivory v. Millions were killed
Case Study: The Congo After Imperialism Time Period (Years) What Happened The African Congo Free State (1877– 1908) Period of King Leopold II’s exploitation Belgian Congo (1908 -1960) Direct rule by Belgium’s parliament The Congo Crisis (1960 – 1971) Independence leads to civil war Zaire (1971 -1997) Corruption and dictatorship Democratic Republic of Congo (1997 – ? ? ? ) Civil wars in neighboring Uganda and Rwanda have spilled into the country
Case Study: The Congo After Imperialism v. Today v. Civil war continues v 5 million killed v 45, 000 killed per month v Attacks on civilians v Millions of refugees v Child soldiers v Rape used as a method of warfare (200, 000 reported) v. One of the poorest countries in the world
Closing Considering what happened in the Congo, people should unite against a common threat because…
Opening What happens if you have two plants, but only water one of them?
Case Study: South Africa
Case Study: South Africa Before Imperialism v. Early human sites v. United by Shaka Zulu v“Cape of Good Hope” was a key port for Europeans on the way to trade in Asia v. Dutch settlers called the Boers arrived in 1652
Case Study: South Africa Motives for Imperialism v. Political Motive v. Strategic v. Economic v 1. location Motives Diamonds - 1867 v 2. Gold -1886
Case Study: South Africa Methods of Imperialism v. British vs. Zulu (Blacks) Zulu nearly win with spears and shields! v Zulu lose kingdom (1879) submit to British (1887) v v. British v vs. Boers (Dutch) Boer War (1899 – 1910) v. Racial Discrimination
Case Study: South Africa After Imperialism v. Independence from Britain (1910) v. Racial Discrimination (1910 – 1948) v. Laws restricting voting, housing, property, schooling, jobs… v. Apartheid (1948 – 1994) v. Segregation of whites, blacks and mixed people ends with Nelson Mandela
Case Study: South Africa After Imperialism v. Today v 80% Black v. Developing Nation v. Economic growth – success story v. Huge wealth/income gaps remain between racial groups
Closing Considering what happened in South Africa, people should water all their plants because…
Opening Can someone be forced to change?
Case Study: Ivory Coast
Case Study: Ivory Coast Before Imperialism v. Large rich societies Kong Empire v Gyaaman v Baoule v v. Islam, traditional religions v. Transatlantic slave trade (1500 – 1870)
Case Study: Ivory Coast Before Imperialism To slavery in the Americas
Case Study: Ivory Coast Motives for Imperialism v. Political v France Motive wanted all of West Africa v. Ideological v Wanted to make West Africa French v. Economic v Natural Motive resources – people for slavery, cocoa, coffee, rubber, and IVORY
Case Study: Ivory Coast Methods of Imperialism v. Faster Transportation v Controlled trade on the rivers and in and out of the country’s ports v. Assimilation v Forced Africans to learn French language, culture and Christianity
Case Study: Ivory Coast After Imperialism v. Independence from France (1960) v. Official language is French v Islam, Christianity and traditional religions are practiced
Closing Considering what happened in the Ivory Coast, people should not force others to change because…