Imperialism is… The policy of establishing colonies and building empires.
Definition of Imperialism A policy by a stronger nation (such as the USA) to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.
Why did Imperialism Develop? Economic factors Political or Nationalistic factors Humanitarian or Cultural factors Military factors
Economic Factors Manufacturing nations need more natural resources and more markets.
Political or Nationalistic Factors Nationalism - a belief that one’s nations goals are superior to those of other nations
Humanitarian or Cultural Factors Spreading Western ideas and Christianity. It was their duty to spread the blessings of Western civilization across the globe.
Military Factors Growing navies need new naval bases worldwide.
Early American Imperialism Using the idea of Manifest Destiny, Alaska was purchased in 1867. The Midway Islands were annexed (joined to the USA) in 1867.
Alaska is purchased in 1867 Secretary of State William H. Seward agreed to purchase Alaska from Russia for $7. 2 million. (that’s only about 2 cents an acre!) • At the time, critics thought Seward was crazy and called the deal "Seward's folly. "
Was it worth it? ? Discoveries of gold were made there in the 1880 s and 1890 s. These discoveries brought attention and people to Alaska. Today, petroleum transported across the state through a pipeline is Alaska's richest mineral resource.
Imperialism Presidents William Mc. Kinley Republican Starts US Imperialism Reaffirmed Monroe Doctrine
Other Pacific Property Hawaii – 1891 Queen Liliuokalani takes throne & against trade w/ US 1893 – Marines led by Sanford Dole overthrow Queen Dole made governor – asks for annexation to the US
How did America become Involved in Imperialism? , The Hawaiian Queen is removed from power cont. by American military force under pressure from businessmen (including Sanford Dole – the pineapple guy…) Hawaii is annexed in 1898.
Other Pacific Property. Japan - Trade relations are established in 1854 by Commodore Matthew Perry and a very young U. S. Navy
Other Pacific Property Samoa – US, GB, & Germany try to acquire harbor @ Pago Over time US would gain complete control
Other Pacific Property China – divided up among European countries These “spheres of influence” limited trade between the U. S. and China
Open Door Policy In the fall of 1898, President Mc. Kinley and Secretary of State John Hay force an "open door" policy on the nations that control China. • The policy would allow all trading nations access to the Chinese markets.
Civil War in Cuba • By 1895, In 1895 civil Spain had war broke only a few out in Cuba colonial between possessions Spain and left including Cuban the rebels. Philippines, Puerto Rico and Cuba
Setting the Stage for War In competition for readership, two New York newspapers wrote exaggerated stories about the Cuban rebellion. • This yellow journalism sold a lot of papers but had other effects as well: • It whipped up American public opinion in favor of the Cuban rebels! The Yellow Kid
Setting the Stage for War William Randolph Hearst Owner of New York Journal
Setting the Stage for War Joseph Pulitzer Owner of the New York World
Printed under a headline that read: Cuban Babes Prey to Famine Thousands of Children Perishing in Island Towns Sights that Sicken Strong Men
The New York Journal reports ". . . blood on the roadsides, blood in the villages, blood, blood!" When William Randolph Hearst sent a reporter to cover the rumored war, he cabled back that there was no war going on. Hearst wired back: “Please remain. You supply the pictures, and I'll supply the war. ”
To get the attention of the U. S. government – Cuban Rebels burn plantations owned by U. S. businessmen. The U. S. Battleship Maine is sent to protect U. S. citizens and as a warning message to Spain!
Admiral George Dewey sent to Philippines ? ?
De. Lome Letter written to Sp. Foreign Minister “…it shows once more what Mc. Kinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a wouldbe politician who tries to leave the door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his De. Lome – The Spanish party. ” Ambassador to the U. S.
De. Lome Letter De. Lome the Spanish Ambassador in the US sends letter back to Spain calling Mc. Kinley weak. Newspapers publish and challenge Mc. Kinley to respond.
Uh-Oh. . . on February 9, 1898 New York Journal owner William Randolph Hearst published the letter under the headline, "The Worst Insult to the United States in Its History. " • Six days later comes the final straw!
Remember the Maine!
Spanish-American War USS Maine EXPLODES! Over 250 Killed! Sailors
Spanish-American War April 11, 1898 – Mc. Kinley asks Congress to declare war May 1 st, 1898 – First attack was @ Philippines Dewey sank entire Spanish Pacific Fleet
Spanish-American War Admiral Dewey joined forces w/ Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo Aug. Spanish troops surrender to US
Spanish-American War May 1 st, 1898 – Second attack was surrounding Spanish Atlantic Fleet @ Santiago Harbor
Spanish-American War Theodore Roosevelt led invasion of Cuba w/ the Rough Riders – Volunteer Cavalry
Spanish-American War Battle of San Juan Hill – July 1 st most famous incident of the war
Spanish-American War July 4 th – Spanish Fleet tried to leave All sunk by US fleet ending the war Called “Splendid Little War” 2, 500 US died – 400 died in battle? Rest died of yellow fever, malaria, food poisoning, & bad Meds
Spanish-American War Walter Reed US Army Physician Confirmed that yellow fever was transmitted by mosquitoes
Spanish-American War Teller Amendment – April 18, 1898 Joint Resolution of Congress U. S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people. "
Spanish-American War Platt Amendment (1899) Replaced Teller Amendment Gave US an open door to intervene in Cuban affairs.
Spanish-American War Treaty of Paris 1. Cuba is independent – US gets to keep a naval base on island 2. US gained Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam
Imperialism Presidents Theodore Roosevelt “Big Stick Diplomacy” Gained US Panama Canal Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine – it was the right of US to intervene in Latin American nations
Imperialism Presidents Theodore Roosevelt US repeatedly intervened in Latin Am. & the Caribbean 1905 – TR mediated conflict between France & Russia won Nobel Peace Prize
The Panama Canal Greatest Shortcut on Earth!
Why Build a Canal? A trip from San Francisco to New York is 7, 872 miles shorter using the canal instead of going around South America.
What the Heck’s an Isthmus? Isn’t the Atlantic in the East and Pacific in the West? ?
1880 s In 1881, the French were given permission to build a canal across Panama. • What challenges do you think they faced building a canal in this type of area?
• By noon the temperature is around 100 degrees.
The average yearly rainfall is about 105 inches! (avg. rainfall for Middletown, De is around 42 inches) Flooding makes the ground like pudding, and you can sink up to your knees in mud.
It’s so humid that after it rains steam rises from the ground • Your clothes are nearly always soaking wet.
The Jungle grows at an amazing rate!
The terrain is NOT level!
Tropical diseases, such as yellow fever and malaria are spread easily by mosquitoes.
• After eight years and over 20, 000 French construction worker deaths, the French abandon the project. • The company building the canal goes bankrupt.
In 1903, Panama was a province of Colombia (kind of like Delaware is part of the United States) • The United States offers to buy rights to build the canal from Colombia for $10 million dollars and $250, 000 per year.
Colombia refuses! – holding out for more money…
• Roosevelt is Furious! He refuses to deal with the Columbians any longer… On November 3, 1903 Panamanians, hoping to gain from the construction of a canal, launched a revolution…
Teddy Roosevelt sends warships to protect Panama and prevent Columbia from retaking it’s own territory.
• The rebels are quickly victorious and on November 6, 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt officially recognizes the new nation of Panama who in turn signs the treaty previously refused by Colombia.
The United States begins work on the canal in 1904. It is a project of the U. S. government so unlike the French, they did not run out of money. The efforts of William Gorgas defeat the worst obstacle - Disease
Another major decision had to be made – should the canal be sea level – like the French had tried to build or should they follow the natural rise of the land?
What are locks? A lock is a part of a canal with gates at each end where boats are raised or lowered to different water levels.
• Click Here to See How a Lock Works (click on “Operation” when you get to the website)
Building the Lock Chambers
Construction progresses using steam shovels and human muscle By 1914, the canal is completed – ahead of schedule and under budget!
More than 922, 000 vessels have used the waterway since its opening on August 15, 1914.
1977 The United States signed a treaty with Panama that agreed to give Panama control of the canal in 1999
A vessel passing through the Panama Canal pays a toll proportionate to its size. The average toll is about $45, 000
The lowest toll ever paid is 36 cents, paid by Richard Halliburton for swimming the Canal in 1928. On May 30 th, 2006, the Maersk Dellys established a new toll record by paying $249, 165. 00!!
On average, a vessel will take between 8 to 10 hours to transit.
Although longer than 3 Statues of Liberty laid end to end, the current locks are too small. Many ships, known as “Pana. Max”, barely fit through…
Due to be completed between 2014 and 2015, Work is under way to modernize the canal and enable it to handle much larger ships. At a cost of over $5 Billion, work includes deepening and widening the canal along with adding newer and larger locks.
Click Here to See The Panama Canal in Action Right NOW!!
Imperialism Presidents William Taft Dollar Diplomacy – encouraging & protecting US trade / investments in Latin Am. and Asia
Imperialism Presidents Woodrow Wilson Moral Diplomacy – promoting democratic ideals abroad Intervened in the Mexican Revolution
Intervention in Mexico Porfirio Diaz (Mexico) overthrew by Madero. Gov’t taken over by Gen. Huerta Wilson refused to recognize new gov’t. Rebel groups lead by Emiliano Zapata & Francisco “Pancho” Villa want US support Sent troops to occupy Veracruz (port)
Intervention in Mexico Diaz General Huerta
Intervention in Mexico Zapata Pancho Villa
Intervention in Mexico Nationalist Leader – Venustiano Carranza overthrows Huerta Wilson withdraws his troops & recognizes Carranza’s gov’t
Intervention in Mexico Villa was outraged & started attacking US border towns Wilson sent Gen. John Pershing after Villa into Mexico Carranza outraged! Wilson removed the troops
Arguments for Expansion Obtain new markets. Protect overseas investments. Rekindle the American pioneer spirit. Bring civilization to the “heathen” people around the world.