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Imperialism • IMPERIALISM = EMPIRE BUILDING, when stronger nations exert their control over weaker ones. • Nationalism + Industrialization = Imperialism • Nationalism – motivated overseas expansion • Industrialization – increased need for raw materials and markets; enabled better transportation/communication Napoleon Julius Caesar William Mc. Kinley
Imperialism – Old vs. New OLD • God, Gold, Glory (colonies/ports) • Focus on the Americas • Portugal, Spain, England, France • BEFORE the Industrial Revolution • • NEW Political, Economic, Social motivations (colonial, political, economic and social-cultural imperialism) Focus on Africa and Asia ADDING - Germany, Italy, Belgium, US and Japan Fueled by Industrial Rev
Motivations for New Imperialism • Economic • Raw Materials • Markets • Investment Opportunities
Motivations for New Imperialism • Political • Nationalism • Competition
Motivations for New Imperialism • Philosophical • Social Darwinism/Racism • Religion
Discussion Questions 1. Which motivation appeared the most? 2. Why do you think that was the most common motivating factor? 3. What similarities did you see between the different “documents”? 4. What perspective was missing from the documents?
Forms of Imperialism TROPICAL DEPENDENCIES SETTLER COLONIES Small # of Europeans ruled non Westerners in less appealing geographic regions and exploited the natural resources. Conflicts often rose due to continued contact between Europeans and non-Europeans Destinations of large European migration in more appealing geographic regions with the dual purposes of settling and exploiting the natural resources. Conflicts increased depending on the number of non-Europeans being displaced. In some instances indigenous peoples were almost extinct EXAMPLES: Asia Africa South Pacific EXAMPLES: Canada South Africa New Zealand Algeria Australia Kenya
Impact of Industrialization on Imperialism • INDUSTRIALIZATION AND IMPERIALISM • Nations looked for raw materials for factories (cotton, hemp, metals, dyes) • Caused further competition with European countries • Second Industrial Revolution – 1860 made it possible to spread influence all over the world. • Important innovation – Bessemer steel converter – accelerated effectiveness of machinery and products. • Steamboats and RR Interior of colonies • Chemical industries grew- produced synthetic substances for dyes for textiles, fertilizers, and explosives for construction. • Plastics became available. • Suez Canal (1859 -1869) & Panama Canal (1904 -1914)- construction due to industrialization.
Suez and Panama Canal • Helped the travel of ships and lowered costs of trade. Made communications easier
The British Empire in India Nawabs- Muslim princes made agreements with British, Dutch, and French companies to establish trading posts. By 1750, staffed by company menhired and trained Indian troops (sepoys) 1700 s - British East India Co. controlled several port cities 1757 – Battle of Plassey (part of the 7 years war) – 1757 – gave the British control of the Bengal region and the city Calcutta.
Early British Control in India British East India Co. • Early British interest was primarily economic (East India Co. ) therefore control over the political, social and economic structures evolved. • Politically - alliances were arranged with Indian regional princes and additional sepoy regiments were created • Christian missionaries encouraged conversion to Christianity and adoption of British customs. • British Raj provided new jobs (trade/military) and weakened the Indian handicraft textile industry (Indian had previously been the primary exporter of cotton FINISHED goods they exported Indian cotton to British factories
Sepoy Rebellion - 1857 • Cultural Conflict sepoys began to change their allegiance to the Mughal “rulers” instead of the British • Sparked by conflict of cultures due to the fact that bullets for rifles were covered in animal fat. Sepoys were told to tear paper with their teeth, sepoys refused due to fat from cows being sacred. • Britain sent soldiers to put down the rebellion and reestablish control. • Rule of the British East India Company was transferred to Queen Victoria who was crowned Empress of India
The British Raj – Imperial Rule Britain had a viceroy representing Britain in India. Viceroy had elite Indian Civil Service that was mostly Englishmen. Viceroys had elaborate palaces. Few Indians were able to hold powerful positions. Railroad owners were British and workers were Indian.
Economic Imperialism in India • Technologies • • Railroads – largest in Asia steamboats /harbors/ canals Telegraph lines Sewage system • Economic Development • • urbanization crop lands measured/registered forests managed more drawn into the global economy with sale of cotton, opium, tea, silk and sugar to Britain
Cultural Imperialism in India • Sati Charles Napier – "Be it so. This burning of widows is your custom; prepare the funeral pile. But my nation has also a custom. When men burn women alive we hang them, and confiscate all their property. My carpenters shall therefore erect gibbets on which to hang all concerned when the widow is consumed. Let us all act according to national customs. " [ • Education Thomas Babington Macaulay – "educate a people who cannot at present be educated by means of their mother tongue" and thus, by incorporating English, he sought to "enrich" the Indian languages so "that they could become vehicles for European scientific, historical, and literary expression". Western style schools for the elite to help fill administrative posts by those who understood the English language and customs. Taught technical and scientific knowledge, western literature and manners. Although educated by British, were not allowed same privileges as Englishmen. On the other hand, western educated Indians did not have anything in common with traditional Indians.
SOUTHEAST ASIA • 16 th c – Spain claimed the Philippines – to help control trade between China and Spanish America; many islands in SE Asia captured by the Dutch. • British turned to Southeast Asia to stimulate more trade between India, SE Asia, and china. By 1880’s gained control of Burma, by 1820’s port of Singapore which they used in the 1870’s and 1880’s as a base to conquer Malaya (Malaysia) • French- established French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) • Siam was left neutral (Thailand today) • 1898 - after defeat of Spain in Spanish. American war-U. S. took Philippines as a colony
Africa - 1870 • Africa • 600 -1450 • 1450 -1750 • IR – technology could allow“ deepest, darkest, Africa” to be penetrated for … • diamonds, gold, copper • agricultural products
Scramble for Africa • 1871 – Germany becomes a country (official name – German Empire) • Between 1875 -1884 – European countries began to claim African lands • 1884 – Berlin Conference (Otto von Bismarck) • Bismarck- representatives sat down and carved out claims of Africa. All was colonized except Ethiopia and Liberia.
Explorers/Missionaries • David Livingstone – • Inspired desire for new converts • Mapped unknown African areas/rivers • Dr. Stanley established trading posts on the way home for King Leopold II (Belgium) • 3 Cs (Commerce, Civilization, Christianity)
Scramble for Africa • NORTHERN AFRICA • Muhammad Ali – Egypt – Important to Europe because he supported European influence. He modernized by introducing irrigation projects and by producing cotton for British textile mills. European creditors leaned heavily on Egypt when they felt the debt of the American Civil War. Britain controlled Egypt with forces sent to protect the Suez canal. • French invaded Algeria- to suppress piracy and collect debts. Algerians wanted independence. Warfare broke out (led by Abed al-Qadir)and French won. Algerians were still hostile about occupation by French.
Scramble for Africa • SOUTH AFRICA • Dutch established Cape Colony as stopping point for ships between Europe and S. Asia • Political and social unrest in 19 th c- leader named Shaka took control of Zulu kingdom (1816) Many groups were displaced • Dutch settlers moved inland “Great Trek” of Boers (Dutch) This caused problems with those displaced by Zulus. Two Boer Republics – Orange Free State and Transvaal • Europeans sought gold and diamond deposits in Cape Colony. Cecil Rhodes – British entrepreneur founded De. Beers Consolidated. • Two Colonies named after Rhodes: Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) • British tried to annex Boer republics and sparked Boer War- British won but left to let them govern themselves
Global Changes • Economic changes • natural resources controlled by imperialist countries left the colonies poor. Most were raw materials for factories of Europe. • Labor Migrations – • people were encouraged to migrate where labor was most needed. Many became indentured servants. • Indian migrants- rubber plantations in SE Asia, S Africa, and the Pacific Islands. • Chinese laborers- sugar plantations in Caribbean, gold mines in S. Africa and Australia, and railroad construction in U. S, Canada, and Peru. • Japanese and Chines to sugar plantations in Hawaii • African laborers to sugar plantations in Caribbean islands.
Global Changes • Social consequences – conflicts- segregation from the natives. Mixed marriages frowned upon. Upper and middle-class natives seldom socialized with Europeans. Women gained better educational opportunities. • Scientific Racism – assumption that world is divided into four main racial groups each with their own characteristics. Joseph Arthur de Gobineau, characterized Africans as lazy and unintelligent, Europeans as intelligent and morally superior, Asians as smart but non-assertive, and American natives as arrogant yet dull. • Charles Darwin – The Origins of species (1859)– survival of the fittest • Social Darwinist – Herbert Spencer- ideas were used to justify wealth of entrepreneurs in opposition to laborers, as well as domination of European imperialists over subject peoples. The fittest would dominate.