- Slides: 19
Imperialism/ Colonialism in Africa
Imperialism • A stronger nation conquering a weaker nation in order to control its resources. • 1400 s: The Portuguese begin exploring West Africa – New technology for longer ocean voyages • Purpose- looking for: – Gold – Direct route to India – Later: convert to Christianity • Gain power in Africa Avoiding Muslims in N. Africa
Slavery Increases Interest In Africa • Practiced in many civilizations: – – – China, Parts of Africa Egypt, Rome Greece • Europeans take slavery worldwide • Justifications: – Nationalism • Pride in one’s country usually demonstrated through military – Feelings of racial and religious superiority
Discovery of the Americas • Europeans needed to remove/ process natural resources from the New World • How? – Trade goods (guns, alcohol) for slaves to work fields for tobacco, sugar, etc.
Triangular Trade • Europe to Africa – Guns, alcohol • Africa to Americas – Slaves • Americas to Europe – Sugar, rum, tobacco
Colonialism • A stronger nation conquering a weaker nation, occupies it, and replaces its governments with its own representatives.
European Colonialism in Africa • 1800 s: Europeans begin to move into the interior of Africa • Reasons for increased Colonialism: – Global Power • Need to keep up with other nations – Control Resources – Convert to Christianity
Partition of Africa (1895) • European nations clash in “The Scramble For Africa” – Possible war • Partition of Africa – 14 European nations meet to divide Africa amongst themselves. • Create most of the national borders which still exist – 2 nations remain Independent • Ethiopia: Repelled Italy • Liberia: Connections to the US
End of Imperialism in Africa
Why did it end? • The people of Africa: – Resented European presence in their land – Resented the inequities of colonialism
WWI/ WWII • The wars: – Proved that Europeans can be beaten • Increased resistance in parts of Africa – Drained European power and will to control colonies
1950’s & 1960’s • Europe leaves many African nations to become independent • By 1970 s most African nations were free of the European powers and were independent nations
Challenges for the new nations • Who is in charge? – Tribal/ ethnic rivalries • What type of government? – Authoritarian? – Democracy? – Communism?
Legacy of Colonialism 1. Social and Cultural Disruption • Europeans encouraged Africans to change their culture
Legacy of Colonialism 2. Underdeveloped Human Potential Most Africans used as labor No African leadership encouraged Little wealth in African hands
Legacy of Colonialism 3. Weak Infrastructure & Exploited Resources – Europeans built infrastructure: • Roads, hospitals, bridges, etc – Built to increase profit (not to benefit the people) • Much of the continent left with little infrastructure
Legacy of Colonialism 4. Destroyed Trade Before Colonialism: - most trade was within Africa - External trade was with the Middle East Colonialism destroyed those patterns & contacts - Therefore, they were still dependent on Europe for trade
Legacy of Conquest 5. Colonial Boundaries 1885: Partition of Africa - 14 European nations meet to divide Africa - Ethnic groups divided - rival ethnic groups within same nation - this encouraged war after independence
Legacy of Colonialism 6. Colonial Governments were a poor role model Democracy discouraged Power through violence Corruption