Impact of Income Levels on Food Insecurity Presented

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Impact of Income Levels on Food Insecurity Presented by: Shelby Lenz, Kelly Annestrand, Andrea

Impact of Income Levels on Food Insecurity Presented by: Shelby Lenz, Kelly Annestrand, Andrea Bird, & Amy James Tarleton State University Social Work Program

Introduction • “ Food insecurity is limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and

Introduction • “ Food insecurity is limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways” The definition of food insecurity has evolved even more since the poverty thresholds were created, providing a basis for examining the correlation between food insecurity and income level. • Examining contributing factors to food insecurity may provide valuable insights in the development of strategies to increase food security among individuals and families in rural areas. For this reason the research proposal seeks to examine the effect that income has on food insecurity within the rural area of Erath County. • Feeding America states 17. 2% of the population in Erath County is food insecure in comparison to the national average of 16. 4% • The same publication from Feeding America identifies low income families as being at higher risk for food insecurity • Rural areas such as Erath County experience more significant food insecurity issues than urban areas due to a lack of nutrition assistance, limited or no public transit options, and low income.

Problem Statement & Objectives Food insecurity is a widespread issue; however rural communities such

Problem Statement & Objectives Food insecurity is a widespread issue; however rural communities such as Erath County are affected by a limited amount of proper nutrition more frequently. A limited amount of proper nutrition and available resources occurs because citizens living in rural communities have a more prominent lack of nutrition programs or resources and opportunities than an urban community. The researchers developed the following research question and objectives to assess the problem: Research Question: What are the trends in the levels of income and the levels of food insecurity in Erath County? Objectives: O 1: Assess the correlations between income levels and food insecurity O 2: Assess the participants’ interpretation of food insecurity

Hypotheses H 1: Income level will be negatively correlated to the presence of food

Hypotheses H 1: Income level will be negatively correlated to the presence of food insecurity. H 2: Food insecurity will be more frequent in households with incomes below the poverty level than in households with incomes above the poverty level.

Literature review The literature review section focused on 3 major correlations between food insecurity

Literature review The literature review section focused on 3 major correlations between food insecurity and income levels 1. Disparities in rural regions Education Level Food and Resource Availability 2. How income and employment status affect food insecurity within households Low-income Unemployed 3. Demographic factors related to food insecurity Racial/Ethnic Groups Age

Theory Ecological Systems Theory (EST) - Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979) ● Critical in understanding micro,

Theory Ecological Systems Theory (EST) - Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979) ● Critical in understanding micro, mezzo and macro systems ● Attempts to discover how various variables interact with/influence an individual’s life ● Structured in how data is collected (methodology, IV/DV variables, analysis)

Methods & Research Design • Research • • • Mixed methodological approach, obtaining data

Methods & Research Design • Research • • • Mixed methodological approach, obtaining data to both quantitative and qualitative questions. Six pre developed demographic questions Scale used • The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) was utilized in the questionnaire, developed by the National Center for Health Statistics (2012) • Six domains measured in the HFIAS are • Uncertainty or anxiety over food • Perceptions of insufficient quantity of food • Perceptions of insufficient quality of food • Reported reductions of food intake • Reported consequences of reduced food intake • Feelings of shame for resorting to socially unacceptable means of accessing food • Variables • • Independent variable: Income of the participant Dependent variable: The existence of food insecurity in the participant’s household

Data Analysis & Results 20% (n=36) do not make enough to meet basic needs

Data Analysis & Results 20% (n=36) do not make enough to meet basic needs

Data Analysis & Results Of those who stated they did not have enough to

Data Analysis & Results Of those who stated they did not have enough to meet basic needs. . . 83% (n=30) had an income under $20, 000

Data Analysis & Results Of those who stated they did not have enough to

Data Analysis & Results Of those who stated they did not have enough to meet basic needs. . . 50% (n=18) had a high school diploma/GED equivalent or less

Data Analysis & Results Of those who stated they did not have enough to

Data Analysis & Results Of those who stated they did not have enough to meet basic needs. . . 33% (n=12) had to take in smaller portions for meals

Hypotheses Conclusions H 1: Income level will be negatively correlated to the presence of

Hypotheses Conclusions H 1: Income level will be negatively correlated to the presence of food insecurity. Conclusion: Supported H 2: Food insecurity will be more frequent in households with incomes below the poverty level than in households with incomes above the poverty level. Conclusion: Supported

Strengths & Limitations Strengths: Limitations: ● Researchers had a prior knowledge of, and connections

Strengths & Limitations Strengths: Limitations: ● Researchers had a prior knowledge of, and connections within the community. ● Use of the proven Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) developed by the National Center for Health Statistics (2012) ○ ○ The National Center for Health Statistics cited several studies that verify the use of the six domains contained in the HFIAS (Radimer, 1990), (Radimer, 1992), (Wehler, 1992), (Hamilton, 1997). HFIAS has been field tested in numerous developing countries, demonstrating the usefulness and feasibility of the approach. ● Some participants were hesitant to fill out the survey due to uncomfortable feelings surrounding food insecurity. ● The age brackets for the demographic section of the survey ended with age 36 and up, making no distinction between middle age and elderly individuals.

Ethical Considerations Section 1. 07 (l) of the NASW code of ethics states “[S]ocial

Ethical Considerations Section 1. 07 (l) of the NASW code of ethics states “[S]ocial workers should protect the confidentiality of clients' written and electronic records and other sensitive information. Social workers should take reasonable steps to ensure that clients' records are stored in a secure location and that clients' records are not available to others who are not authorized to have access. ” • Only the researchers have access to the collected data and it is stored securely. • The researchers worked diligently to protect both the research participants and researchers from harm during the research process by explaining the purpose of the survey and any risks associated to each research participant separately. Section 1. 07 (i) of the NASW Code of ethics states “social workers should not discuss confidential information in any setting unless privacy can be ensured” • The surveys were completed in private areas by the participants to respect their privacy. • Outside of demographic questions such as race and gender, there were no personally identifying factors in the survey that could allow for a research participant to be identified, for example name or date of birth

Implications for Future Social Work Research Micro implications: Identify and determine effective means of

Implications for Future Social Work Research Micro implications: Identify and determine effective means of addressing the disproportionate levels of food insecurity among individuals with lower income levels. Mezzo implications: Identified lower income families as a target for future social work research to determine effective means of addressing the issue. Macro implications: The modification of social service agencies as well as research of the most effective means of addressing the disproportionate levels of food insecurity present in lower household income levels will provide the most effective means for addressing food insecurity in Erath County.

References Alaimo, K. , Briefel, R. R. , Frongillo, E. J. , & Olson,

References Alaimo, K. , Briefel, R. R. , Frongillo, E. J. , & Olson, C. M. (1998). Food insufficiency exists in the United States: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). The American Journal of Public Health, 3, (419). Anderson, S. A. (1990). Core indicators of nutritional state for difficult to sample populations. The Journal of Nutrition. 120(9), 1557 -1600. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513 -531. Coleman-Jenson, A. , Gregory, C. , & Singh, A. (2014). Household food security in the United States in 2013. United States Department of Agriculture: Economic Research Report. 173. Feeding America. (2013). Map the meal gap: Highlights of findings for overall and child food insecurity. Retrieved from http: //www. feedingamerica. org/hunger-in-america/our-research/map-the-meal-gap/2011 -mapthemealgap-exec-summary. pdf National Association of Social Workers. (1999). Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from: http: //www. vet. utk. edu/social work/pdf/NASWCodeof. Ethics. pdf

References National Center for Health Statistics. (2012). Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Retrieved from

References National Center for Health Statistics. (2012). Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Retrieved from http: //www. fao. org/fileadmin/user_upload/eufao-fsi 4 dm/doc-training/hfias. pdf Patton-Lopez, M. , Lopez-Cevallos, D. , & Cancel-Tirado, D. (2014). Prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among students attending a midsize rural university in Oregon. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 46(3), 223 -237. Sharkey, J. , Johnson, C. , & Dean, W. (2011). Relationship of household food insecurity to health-related quality of life in a large sample of rural and urban women. Women & Health. 51(5), 442 -460. Sharkey, J. & Dean, W. (2011). Food insecurity, social capital and perceived personal disparity in a predominantly rural region of Texas: An individual level analysis. Social Science and Medicine. 72(9), 1454 -1462. Wehler, C. , Weinreb, L. , Huntington, N. , Scott, R. , Hosmer, D. , Fletcher, K. , & Gundersen, C. (2004). Risk and protective factors for adult and child hunger among low-income housed and homeless female-headed families. American Journal of Public Health. 94(1), 109 -115.