IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION Immigrants from Europe Old New
IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION
Immigrants from Europe Old New New
Push Factors= Things that force/“push” people out of a place or land. Drought or famine Political revolutions or wars Religious persecution Economic struggles
Push Factors 1880 s- Farmers had a difficult time in Mexico, Poland, and China. 1840 s- many wars and political revolutions in China and Eastern Europe which caused economic troubles. Russian and Eastern European Jews faced religious persecution and fled to the U. S. for safety.
Pull Factors= Things that attract people to a place or land. Plentiful Land Employment Religious Freedom Political Freedom New Life
Pull Factors 1862 Homestead Act and aid from railroad companies made western farmland inexpensive. Workers were recruited from homelands to build railroads, dig mines, or work in factories. Many wanted to find gold. Chain immigrants= come to be with family or friends who had gone before to start new lives.
Old v. New RELIGION Protestant Catholic and Jewish BIRTHPLACE North/Western Europe Southern/Eastern Europe REASONS Both escaping poverty, religious and political persecution DESTINATION OCCUPATION Moved to farms Midwest Moved to cities in the Northeast Became farmers Unskilled workers
New Immigrants New Immigrants= Southern and Eastern Europeans during 1870 s until WWI. Came from Ireland, Germany, Italy, Greece, Poland, Hungary and Russia. Often unskilled, poor, Catholic or Jewish, and planning to save some money to take back home. Old Immigrants- Came before the Irish and German immigrants. After 1900, New Immigrants made up 70% of all immigrants. American natives felt threatened by the new immigrants
New Immigrants Flood the Cities Old Immigrants: Western European Mostly Anglo-Saxon Or German Mostly Protestant High rates of Literacy Farmers New Immigrants Eastern and Southern European Orhodox, Jewish, or Catholic Illiterate Used to City Life
Urban Growth: 1870 - 1900 Mentor, Admin, PDF
The Growth of the City 1870 -1900 Population in cities tripled Industrial jobs Urban lifestyle Electricity Indoor plumbing Telephones Skyscrapers and bridges Department stores
Immigrants Arrive in America 2 ports of entry into the U. S. Ellis Island- New York City Angel Island- San Francisco Bay To enter the ports immigrants had to be healthy and show they had money, a skill, or a sponsor to provide for them. They had to go through a series of health tests and evaluations and could possibly be sent back to their homeland if they did not meet proper guidelines. .
Immigrants Assimilate Into Society Assimilate = to fit in. Most immigrants stayed in cities and lived in ethnic neighborhoods called ghettos. These neighborhoods would share the same language, religion, and culture. By 1890 many cities had a huge immigrant population. 4/5 people in NYC were immigrants.
Immigrants Face Hostility Nativism = belief that native born white Americans were superior to immigrants. Competition for jobs and homes often fueled resentment and religious and cultural differences caused tensions as well. Chinese Exclusion Act = 1882 Prohibited immigration by Chinese laborers, limited civil rights of immigrants in America, and forbade naturalization of Chinese residents. A later ruling said the Chinese who were already in America were considered U. S. citizens.
Chinese Exclusion Act • Resentment and discrimination against the Chinese. • First law to restrict immigration. • Taking away jobs from Nativists
Immigrants Change America Immigrants changed America in many ways. § § Fueled industrial growth Acquired citizenship Elected politicians Made their traditions a part of American culture. Mexican Americans developed ranching techniques. Chinese, Irish, and Mexican workers built railroads. Immigrants worked in coal mines, steel and textile mills, and factories. Women immigrants worked in factories, seamstresses, laundresses, made piecework, and worked as servants. Immigrants helped the U. S. become a world power.
“Dumbell “ Tenement, NYC
“Dumbell “ Tenement
Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lived (1890)
Tenement Slum Living
Mulberry Street – “Little Italy”
Hester Street – Jewish Section
Pell St. - Chinatown, NYC