- Slides: 33
IMAGERY University of Idaho
Imagery Theory Questions of Interest What is imagery? Does imagery work? How does imagery work?
What Is Imagery? A form of simulation training, where experiences are created/recreated in the mind.
What Is Imagery? Visualization vs. Imagery Visualization • Unimodal • Sight Imagery • Multimodal • Sight • Sound • Smell • Taste • Touch/Feel
Does Imagery Work? (Murphy, Jowdy, & Durtschi, 1990) � <90% of surveyed U. S. and Canadian Olympic athletes used imagery � 97% of the athletes agreed that imagery enhances performance � 100% of the coaches agreed that imagery enhances performance
Does Imagery Work? Anecdotal Reports Case Studies Intervention Packages
Does Imagery Work? Anecdotal Reports Wayne Gretzsky � “We taped a lot of famous pictures on the locker -room door: Bobby Orr, Potvin, Beliveau, all holding the Stanley Cup. We’d stand back and look at them and envision ourselves doing it. I really believe if you visualize yourself doing something, you can make that image come true. . . I must have rehearsed it 10, 000 times. And when it came true, it was like an electric jolt went up my spine. ”
Does Imagery Work? Anecdotal Reports Jack Nicklaus � “I never hit a shot, not even in practice, without having a very sharp, in-focus picture of it in my head. It’s like a color movie. First, I “see” the ball where I want it to finish, nice and white and sitting up high on bright green grass. Then the scene quickly changes and I “see” the ball going there; its path, trajectory and shape, even its behavior on landing. Then there is sort of a fade -out, and the next scene shows me making the kind of swing that will turn the images into reality. ”
Does Imagery Work? Anecdotal Reports Greg Louganis � “I did my dives in my head all the time. At night, before going to sleep, I always did my dives. Ten dives, starting with the first one I’d do in the Olympics, and I did everything as if I was actually there. I saw myself on the board with the same suit—everything was the same. If the dive was wrong, I went back and started over again. It takes a good hour to do perfect imagery of all my dives, but for me it was better than a workout. Sometimes I would take the weekend off and do imagery 5 times a day. ”
Does Imagery Work? More than 200 studies show that imagery is effective in improving performance across a wide variety of sports (Martin, Moritz, & Hall, 1999).
Does Imagery Work? Physical Combined Physical & Mental Nothing
How Does Imagery Work? Imagined events have a similar affect on the nervous system and mental processes as actual events.
How Does Imagery Work? Symbolic Learning Theory Psychoneuromuscular Theory Mental Skills Hypothesis
How Does Imagery Work? Symbolic Learning Theory Movements are coded into symbolic mental representations, or mental blueprints. Imagery solidifies the blueprint and allows for easier activation of the motor schema.
How Does Imagery Work? Psychoneuromuscular Theory Based on the ideomotor principle 1984): � Imagery (Carpenter, activates the same neuromuscular pathways, thus innervating the same muscles, which are engaged during the actual execution of the movement.
How Does Imagery Work? Psychoneuromuscular Theory Vivid images can produce activity in the neuromuscular pathways which can, in turn, innervate the muscle.
How Does Imagery Work? Mental Skills Hypothesis Imagery assists in achieving an optimal arousal level, which allows the performer to focus on task-relevant cues. Imagery helps build psychological skills that are critical to performance enhancement (confidence, concentration, stress management).
Imagery Development Questions of Interest What is imagery used for? When is imagery used? What factors influence imagery effectiveness? What are the keys to effective imagery? How do you develop imagery skills?
What Is Imagery Used For? What do Olympic athletes use imagery for (Murphy, Jowdy, & Durtschi 1990) � 80% used � 48% used � 44% used � 40% used it it ? to prepare for competition to deal with errors in technique to learn new skills for relaxation
What Is Imagery Used For? Improve concentration Enhance motivation Build confidence Control emotional responses (stress management) Improve and learn new sport skills Improve and practice strategy Cope with pain and injury Problem solve
When Is Imagery Used? Before, During, and After � Practice � Competition Injury Rehabilitation
What Factors Influence Imagery Effectiveness? Imagery Ability Type of Task Experience
What Factors Influence Imagery Effectiveness? Imagery Ability Vividness � Developing lifelike images. � Clarity, intensity, and detail (all senses). Controllability � Imaging what you intend to image. � Manipulating the images.
What Factors Influence Imagery Effectiveness? Imagery Ability Benefit s
What Factors Influence Imagery Effectiveness? Type of Task Cognitive Task � Primarily mental task, such as the Rubik’s Cube. Motor Task � Primarily physical task, such as playing football.
What Factors Influence Imagery Effectiveness? Experience Novice versus Elite athletes � Both benefit from imagery. � BUT elite athletes benefit more.
What Are Keys to Effective Imagery? 1. Make your images as vivid as possible. 2. Be in control. 3. Relax before imaging. 4. Focus on positive outcomes. 5. Image in real time. 6. Use internal and external perspectives.
How Do You Develop Imagery Skills? 1. Evaluate your imagery skills. � Sensory skills. Vividness. Controllability. � Which areas need to be improved? � �
How Do You Develop Imagery Skills? 2. Choose the right setting. � � � No distractions Distractions Off-site On-site Off-field On-field
How Do You Develop Imagery Skills? 3. Choose the right content. � Non-sport content Sport content Opponent situation-specific sport content
How Do You Develop Imagery Skills? 4. Be systematic in your approach! � As with physical skills, mental skills need to be practiced systematically for the highest level of effectiveness. � How often do Olympic athletes use imagery? (Murphy, Jowdy, & Durtschi, 1990) 20% used imagery every day 40% used imagery 3 -5 days a week