IEEE 802 11 Wireless LAN Why Wireless LAN

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IEEE 802. 11 Wireless LAN

IEEE 802. 11 Wireless LAN

Why Wireless LAN? • Traditional LANs need wires, which may be difficult to set

Why Wireless LAN? • Traditional LANs need wires, which may be difficult to set up in some situations. • Advantages of Wireless LANs – Allow mobility and flexibility – Reduced cost • Applicable scenarios – Offices – Building with open area – Hybrid with wired LANs

Architectures Infrastructure mode Infrastructure-less/ distributed/ad-hoc mode

Architectures Infrastructure mode Infrastructure-less/ distributed/ad-hoc mode

Physical Layer • RF: Spread Spectrum, no licensing required. Resistance to interference – Band:

Physical Layer • RF: Spread Spectrum, no licensing required. Resistance to interference – Band: 915 -Mhz, 2. 4 GHz (worldwide ISM), 5. 2 Ghz – Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) • broaden the signaling band by artificially increasing the modulation rate using a spreading code. 2 M or 10 M. – Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) • hop from narrow band to narrow band within a wide band, using each narrow band for a specific time period.

MAC Layer: Hidden Terminal Problem • Node B can communicate with A and C

MAC Layer: Hidden Terminal Problem • Node B can communicate with A and C both • A and C cannot hear each other • When A transmits to B, C cannot detect the transmission using the carrier sense mechanism • If C transmits, collision will occur at node B A B C

MCAC (Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) • When node A wants to send a

MCAC (Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) • When node A wants to send a packet to node B, node A first sends a Request-to-Send (RTS) to A • On receiving RTS, node A responds by sending Clear-to. Send (CTS), provided node A is able to receive the packet • When a node (such as C) overhears a CTS, it keeps quiet for the duration of the transfer – Transfer duration is included in RTS and CTS both A B C

Reliability • Wireless links are prone to errors. High packet loss rate detrimental to

Reliability • Wireless links are prone to errors. High packet loss rate detrimental to transport-layer performance. • Mechanisms needed to reduce packet loss rate experienced by upper layers • When node B receives a data packet from node A, node B sends an Acknowledgement (Ack). • If node A fails to receive an Ack, it will retransmit the packet A B C

IEEE 802. 11 Wireless MAC • Distributed and centralized MAC components – Distributed Coordination

IEEE 802. 11 Wireless MAC • Distributed and centralized MAC components – Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) – Point Coordination Function (PCF)

IEEE 802. 11 DCF • Uses RTS-CTS exchange to avoid hidden terminal problem –

IEEE 802. 11 DCF • Uses RTS-CTS exchange to avoid hidden terminal problem – Any node overhearing a CTS cannot transmit for the duration of the transfer • Uses ACK to achieve reliability • Any node receiving the RTS cannot transmit for the duration of the transfer – To prevent collision with ACK when it arrives at the sender – When B is sending data to C, node A will keep quite A B C

Collision Avoidance • With half-duplex radios, collision detection is not possible • CSMA/CA: Wireless

Collision Avoidance • With half-duplex radios, collision detection is not possible • CSMA/CA: Wireless MAC protocols often use collision avoidance techniques, in conjunction with a (physical or virtual) carrier sense mechanism – Carrier sense: When a node wishes to transmit a packet, it first waits until the channel is idle – Collision avoidance: Once channel becomes idle, the node waits for a randomly chosen duration before attempting to transmit

Congestion Avoidance • When transmitting a packet, choose a backoff interval in the range

Congestion Avoidance • When transmitting a packet, choose a backoff interval in the range [0, cw] – cw is contention window • Count down the backoff interval when medium is idle – Count-down is suspended if medium becomes busy • When backoff interval reaches 0, transmit RTS

Example B 1 = 25 B 1 = 5 wait data B 2 =

Example B 1 = 25 B 1 = 5 wait data B 2 = 20 cw = 31 wait B 2 = 15 B 2 = 10 B 1 and B 2 are backoff intervals at nodes 1 and 2

IEEE 802. 11 PCF • Purpose: contention-free data transmission • System components – Access

IEEE 802. 11 PCF • Purpose: contention-free data transmission • System components – Access Point (AP): a coordinator controlling the medium access in a poll-and-response manner – Stations: transmit only when being polled • A LAN operates in PCF or DCF mode – The duration in which PCF operates is called contention-free period (CFP) – Before/after a CFP, the network operates in DCF.

IEEE 802. 11 PCF • Starting – AP seizes the medium by using “priority

IEEE 802. 11 PCF • Starting – AP seizes the medium by using “priority inter-frame space” (PIFS) – AP sends out a beacon packet to announce the beginning of a CFP (the packet contains the duration of the CFP) • In a CFP – AP may transmit data packets to any station – AP may send a polling packet to a station • The polled station replies with a data packet or a NULL packet (when nothing to send) • Ending – AP sends out an END packert.

MAC Management • Synchronization – finding and staying with a WLAN. – Synchronization functions

MAC Management • Synchronization – finding and staying with a WLAN. – Synchronization functions • Power management – sleeping without missing any messages – power management functions, e. g. , periodic sleep, frame buffering, traffic indication map • Association and Re-association – joining a network, roaming, moving from one AP to another, scanning

Power Management • 802. 11 power off station during idle periods – A station

Power Management • 802. 11 power off station during idle periods – A station can be in one of three states: • transmitter on, • receiver only on, • dozing: both transmitter and receivers off – is transparent to existing protocols – is flexible to support different application

Power Management • APs buffer packets for sleeping stations – AP announces which stations

Power Management • APs buffer packets for sleeping stations – AP announces which stations have frames buffered – traffic indication map (TIM) sent with every beacon. – All multicasts/broadcasts are buffered • Time Synchronization Function (TSF) assures AP and power save stations are synchronized – stations wake up periodically to hear a beacon – TSF timer keeps running when stations are sleeping – synchronization allows extreme low power operation

Summary • Architectures of Wireless LANs – Infrastructure or infrastructure-less • MAC – Hidden

Summary • Architectures of Wireless LANs – Infrastructure or infrastructure-less • MAC – Hidden terminal problem – collision avoidance – DCF and PCF • MAC management – Power management and others

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

What is a MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks)? • Formed by wireless hosts which

What is a MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks)? • Formed by wireless hosts which may be mobile • No pre-existing infrastructure • Routes between nodes may potentially contain multiple hops – Nodes act as routers to forward packets for each other – Node mobility may cause the routes change B A A B C C D D

Why MANET? • Advantages: low-cost, flexibility – Ease & Speed of deployment – Decreased

Why MANET? • Advantages: low-cost, flexibility – Ease & Speed of deployment – Decreased dependence on infrastructure • Applications – Military environments • soldiers, tanks, planes – Civilian environments • vehicle networks • conferences / stadiums • outside activities – Emergency operations • search-and-rescue / policing and fire fighting

Challenges • Collaboration – Collaborations are necessary to maintain a MANET and its functionality.

Challenges • Collaboration – Collaborations are necessary to maintain a MANET and its functionality. – How to collaborate effectively and efficiently? – How to motivate/enforce nodes to collaborate? • Dynamic topology – Nodes mobility – Interference in wireless communications

Routing Protocols: Overview • Proactive protocols – Determine routes independent of traffic pattern –

Routing Protocols: Overview • Proactive protocols – Determine routes independent of traffic pattern – Traditional link-state and distance-vector routing protocols are proactive – Examples: • DSDV (Dynamic sequenced distance-vector) • OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) • Reactive protocols – Maintain routes only if needed – Examples: • DSR (Dynamic source routing) • AODV (on-demand distance vector) • Hybrid protocols – Example: Zone Routing Protocol (intra-zone: proactive; interzone: on-demand)

Routing Protocols: Tradeoff • Latency of route discovery – Proactive protocols may have lower

Routing Protocols: Tradeoff • Latency of route discovery – Proactive protocols may have lower latency since routes are maintained at all times – Reactive protocols may have higher latency because a route from X to Y may be found only when X attempts to send to Y • Overhead of route discovery/maintenance – Reactive protocols may have lower overhead since routes are determined only if needed – Proactive protocols can (but not necessarily) result in higher overhead due to continuous route updating • Which approach achieves a better trade-off depends on the traffic and mobility patterns

Dynamic Source Routing • J. Broch, D. Johnson, and D. Maltz, “The dynamic source

Dynamic Source Routing • J. Broch, D. Johnson, and D. Maltz, “The dynamic source routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks, ” Internet-Draft Version 03, IETF, October 1999. • When node S wants to send a packet to node D, but does not know a route to D, node S initiates a routing process Runs in three phases • • § Route Discovery Route Reply Path Establishment Route Discovery § § Source node S floods Route Request (RREQ) Each node appends own identifier when forwarding RREQ

Route Discovery in DSR Y Z S E F B C M J A

Route Discovery in DSR Y Z S E F B C M J A L G H K I D N Represents a node that has received RREQ for D from S

Route Discovery in DSR Y Broadcast transmission [S] S Z E F B C

Route Discovery in DSR Y Broadcast transmission [S] S Z E F B C M J A L G H K I D N Represents transmission of RREQ [X, Y] Represents list of identifiers appended to RREQ

Route Discovery in DSR Y S E Z [S, E] F B C A

Route Discovery in DSR Y S E Z [S, E] F B C A M J [S, C] H G K I L D N

Route Discovery in DSR Y Z S E [S, E, F, J] F B

Route Discovery in DSR Y Z S E [S, E, F, J] F B C M J A L G H K I D [S, C, G, K] N

Route Reply in DSR • Destination D on receiving the first RREQ, sends a

Route Reply in DSR • Destination D on receiving the first RREQ, sends a Route Reply (RREP) • RREP is sent on a route obtained by reversing the route appended to received RREQ • RREP includes the route from S to D on which RREQ was received by node D

Route Reply in DSR Y S E Z RREP [S, E, F, J, D]

Route Reply in DSR Y S E Z RREP [S, E, F, J, D] F B C M J A L G H K I Represents RREP control message D N

Route Reply in DSR • Node S on receiving RREP, caches the route included

Route Reply in DSR • Node S on receiving RREP, caches the route included in the RREP • When node S sends a data packet to D, the entire route is included in the packet header § • Hence the name source routing Intermediate nodes use the source route included in a packet to determine to whom a packet should be forwarded

Data Delivery in DSR Y DATA [S, E, F, J, D] S Z E

Data Delivery in DSR Y DATA [S, E, F, J, D] S Z E F B C M J A L G H K I Packet header size grows with route length D N

Some Other Routing Protocols • • • Location information aided protocols Power-aware protocols Others

Some Other Routing Protocols • • • Location information aided protocols Power-aware protocols Others … • e. g. , considering the stability of topology

Location-Aided Routing (LAR) • Y. Ko and N. Vaidya, “Location-aided routing (LAR) in mobile

Location-Aided Routing (LAR) • Y. Ko and N. Vaidya, “Location-aided routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks, ” Mobi. Com'98. • Exploits location information to limit scope of route request flood • § Location information may be obtained using GPS Expected Zone is determined as a region that is expected to hold the current location of the destination § Expected region determined based on potentially old location information, and knowledge of the destination’s speed • Route requests limited to a Request Zone that contains the Expected Zone and location of the sender node • B. Karp, and H. Kung, “Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks, ” Mobi. Com 2000.

Power-Aware Routing • Modification to DSR to make it power aware (for simplicity, assume

Power-Aware Routing • Modification to DSR to make it power aware (for simplicity, assume no route caching): § Route Requests aggregate the weights of all traversed § links Destination responds with a Route Reply to a Route Request if • it is the first RREQ with a given (“current”) sequence number, or • its weight is smaller than all other RREQs received with the current sequence number

Geography Adaptive Fidelity • • Each node associates itself with a square in a

Geography Adaptive Fidelity • • Each node associates itself with a square in a virtual grid Node in each grid square coordinate to determine who will sleep and how long [Y. Xu, et al. “Geography Adaptive Fidelity in Routing, ” Mobicom’ 2001] Grid head

Research in Other Layers • Transport layer • • A survey: A. Hanbali, E.

Research in Other Layers • Transport layer • • A survey: A. Hanbali, E. Altman, P. Nain, “A Survey of TCP over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (2004)”. Application layer § Data management • e. g. , B. Xu, A. Ouksel, and O. Wolfson, "Opportunistic Resource Exchange in Inter-vehicle Ad Hoc Networks, " MDM, 2004. § Distributed algorithms • clock synchronization • mutual exclusion • leader election • Byzantine agreement

Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Problems • Hosts may misbehave or try to compromise security at all layers of

Problems • Hosts may misbehave or try to compromise security at all layers of the protocol stack • Transport layer: securing end-to-end communication • § § Network layer: misbehaving hosts may create many hazards § § § • Need to know keys to be used for secure communication May want to anonymize the communication May disrupt route discovery and maintenance: Force use of poor routes (e. g. , long routes) Delay, drop, corrupt, misroute packets May degrade performance by making good routes look bad MAC layer: misbehaving nodes may not cooperate § § Disobey protocol specifications for selfish gains Denial-of-service attacks

Security in MANET: Agenda • • • Key management Securing communications Dealing with MAC

Security in MANET: Agenda • • • Key management Securing communications Dealing with MAC and Network layer misbehaviors

Key Management • Challenges § In “pure” ad hoc networks, access to infrastructure §

Key Management • Challenges § In “pure” ad hoc networks, access to infrastructure § • cannot be assumed Network may also become partitioned Solutions § Distributed public key infrastructure § § v. Self-organized key management v. Distributed key certification TESLA Others

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Nodes form a “Certificate Graph” § §

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Nodes form a “Certificate Graph” § § each vertex represents a public key an edge from Ku to Kw exists if there is a certificate signed by the private key of node u that binds Kw to the identity of some node w. Ku (w, Kw)Pr Ku Kw

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Four steps of the management scheme •

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Four steps of the management scheme • Step 1: Each node creates its own private/public keys. Each node acts independently

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Step 2: When a node u believes

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Step 2: When a node u believes that key Kw belongs to node w, node u issues a public-key certificate in which Kw is bound to w by the signature of u § § • u may believe this because u and w may have talked on a dedicated channel previously Each node also issues a self-signed certificate for its own key Step 3: Nodes periodically exchange certificates with other nodes they encounter § Mobility allows faster dissemination of certificates through the network

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Step 4: Each node forms a certificate

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Step 4: Each node forms a certificate graph using the certificates known to that node Authentication: When a node u wants to verify the authenticity of the public key Kv of node v, u tries to find a directed graph from Ku to Kv in the certificate graph. If such a path is found, the key is authentic.

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Misbehaving hosts may issue incorrect certificates •

Self-Organized Public Key Management [Capkun 03] • Misbehaving hosts may issue incorrect certificates • If there are mismatching certificates, indicates presence of a misbehaving host (unless one of the mismatching certificate has expired) § • Mismatching certificates may bind same public key for two different nodes, or same node to two different keys To resolve the mismatch, a “confidence” level may be calculated for each certificate chain that verifies each of the mismatching certificates § Choose the certificate that can be verified with high confidence – else ignore both certificates

Secure Communication • With the previously discussed mechanisms for key distribution, it is possible

Secure Communication • With the previously discussed mechanisms for key distribution, it is possible to authenticate the assignment of a public key to a node • This key can then be used for secure communication § § The public key can be used to set up a symmetric key between a given node pair as well TESLA provides a mechanism for broadcast authentication when a single source must broadcast packets to multiple receivers

Secure Communication • Sometimes security requirement may include anonymity • Availability of an authentic

Secure Communication • Sometimes security requirement may include anonymity • Availability of an authentic key is not enough to prevent traffic analysis • We may want to hide the source or the destination of a packet, or simply the amount of traffic between a given pair of nodes

Traffic Analysis • Traditional approaches for anonymous communication, for instance, based on MIX nodes

Traffic Analysis • Traditional approaches for anonymous communication, for instance, based on MIX nodes or dummy traffic insertion, can be used in wireless ad hoc networks as well

Mix Nodes • Mix nodes can reorder packets from different flows, insert dummy packets,

Mix Nodes • Mix nodes can reorder packets from different flows, insert dummy packets, or delay packets, to reduce correlation between packets in and packets out G D C M 1 B A M 3 M 2 E F

Mix Nodes • Node A wants to send message M to node G. Node

Mix Nodes • Node A wants to send message M to node G. Node A chooses 2 Mix nodes (in general n mix nodes), say, M 1 and M 2 G D C M 1 B A M 3 M 2 E F

Mix Nodes • Node A transmits to M 1 message K 1(R 1, K

Mix Nodes • Node A transmits to M 1 message K 1(R 1, K 2(R 2, M)) where Ki() denotes encryption using public key Ki of Mix i, and Ri is a random number G D C M 1 B A M 3 M 2 E F

Mix Nodes • M 1 recovers K 2(R 2, M) and send to M

Mix Nodes • M 1 recovers K 2(R 2, M) and send to M 2 G D C M 1 B A M 3 M 2 E F

Mix Nodes • M 2 recovers M and sends to G G D C

Mix Nodes • M 2 recovers M and sends to G G D C M 1 B A M 3 M 2 E F

Mix Nodes • If M is encrypted by a secret key, no one other

Mix Nodes • If M is encrypted by a secret key, no one other than G or A can know M • Since M 1 and M 2 “mix” traffic, observers cannot determine the source-destination pair without compromising M 1 and M 2 both

Open Problems • How to select the mix nodes to § balance the tradeoff

Open Problems • How to select the mix nodes to § balance the tradeoff between anonymity and cost § be adaptive to node mobility • Can the mix structure be applied without PKI, i. e. , only using symmetric key techniques?

MAC Layer Misbehavior Access Point Wireless channel A C B • Nodes are required

MAC Layer Misbehavior Access Point Wireless channel A C B • Nodes are required to follow Medium Access Control (MAC) rules • Misbehaving nodes may violate MAC rules D

Some Possible Misbehavior • • Causing collisions with other hosts’ RTS or CTS “Impatient

Some Possible Misbehavior • • Causing collisions with other hosts’ RTS or CTS “Impatient transmitter” § Smaller backoff intervals § Shorter Inter-frame Spacings

Solutions • Diagnose node misbehavior § • Discourage misbehavior § • Catch misbehaving nodes

Solutions • Diagnose node misbehavior § • Discourage misbehavior § • Catch misbehaving nodes Punish misbehaving nodes Details will be discussed later in this course

Network Layer Misbehavior: Drop/Corrupt/Misroute • A node “agrees” to join a route (for instance,

Network Layer Misbehavior: Drop/Corrupt/Misroute • A node “agrees” to join a route (for instance, by forwarding route request in DSR) but fails to forward packets correctly • A node may do so to conserve energy, or to launch a denial-of-service attack, due to failure of some sort, or because of overload • Solutions • • Opt I: Detect the attacks tolerate them Opt II: Avoid some attacks

Watchdog Approach • Verify whether a node has forwarded a packet or not B

Watchdog Approach • Verify whether a node has forwarded a packet or not B sends packet to C A B C D E

Watchdog Approach • • • Verify whether a node has forwarded a packet or

Watchdog Approach • • • Verify whether a node has forwarded a packet or not B can learn whether C has forwarded packet or not B can also know whether packet is tampered with if no per-link encryption C forwards packet to D A B C B overhears C Forwarding the packet D E

Watchdog + Pathrater • “Pathrater” is run by each node. Each node assigns a

Watchdog + Pathrater • “Pathrater” is run by each node. Each node assigns a rating to each known node § § § • Ratings of well-behaved nodes increase over time up to a maximum § • Previously unknown nodes assigned “neutral” rating of 0. 5 Rating assigned to nodes suspected of misbehaving are set to large negative value Other nodes have positive ratings (between 0 and 0. 8) So a temporary misbehavior can be overcome by sustained good behavior Routes with larger cumulative node ratings preferred

Information Dispersal to Tolerate Misbehavior • Choose n node-disjoint paths to send the n

Information Dispersal to Tolerate Misbehavior • Choose n node-disjoint paths to send the n pieces of information • Use a route rating scheme (based on delivery ratios) to select the routes • Acknowledgements for received pieces are sent • The missing pieces retransmitted on other routes • Need to be able to detect whether packets are tampered with

Route Tampering Attack • • A node may make a route appear too long

Route Tampering Attack • • A node may make a route appear too long or too short by tampering with RREQ in DSR By making a route appear too long, the node may avoid the route from being used § • • This would happen if the destination replies to multiple RREQ in DSR By making a route appear too short, the node may make the source use that route, and then drop data packets (denial of service) Solution § § Protect route accumulated in RREQ from tampering Removal or insertion of nodes should both be detected

Ariadne: Detecting Route Tampering • Source-Destination S-D pairs share secret keys Ksd and Kds

Ariadne: Detecting Route Tampering • Source-Destination S-D pairs share secret keys Ksd and Kds for each direction of communication • One-way hash function H available • MAC = Message Authentication Code (MAC) computed using MAC keys

Ariadne: Detecting Route Tampering • Let RREQ’ denote the RREQ that would have been

Ariadne: Detecting Route Tampering • Let RREQ’ denote the RREQ that would have been sent in unmodified DSR • Source S broadcasts RREQ = RREQ’, h 0, [] where h 0 = HMACKsd(RREQ’) • When a node X receives an RREQ = (RREQ’, hi, [m list]) § § it broadcasts RREQ, mi+1 where RREQ = (RREQ’, hi+1, [m list]), mi+1 where hi+1 = H(X, hi) and mi+1=HMACKx(RREQ)

Acknowledgements Some slides in this talk were based on i. Nitin Vaidya, Tutorials on

Acknowledgements Some slides in this talk were based on i. Nitin Vaidya, Tutorials on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks i. Nitin Vaidya, Security and Misbehavior Handling in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks i. Guohong Cao, CSE 598 B: Wireless LAN