IB Psychology Biological Level of Analysis Learning Outcomes

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IB Psychology Biological Level of Analysis

IB Psychology Biological Level of Analysis

Learning Outcomes (Guiding Directive) • Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis.

Learning Outcomes (Guiding Directive) • Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis. • Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research.

Principles of the Biological Level of Analysis • Emotions and behaviors are products of

Principles of the Biological Level of Analysis • Emotions and behaviors are products of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous and endocrine systems • Animal research may inform our understanding of human behavior • Patterns of behavior can be inherited; behavior is innate because it is genetically based

Principles of the Biological Level of Analysis • The effect of neurotransmitters • The

Principles of the Biological Level of Analysis • The effect of neurotransmitters • The effect of hormones • The effect of brain localization

Neurotransmitters • Neurons or Nerve cells • Transmission between pre and post synaptic neurons

Neurotransmitters • Neurons or Nerve cells • Transmission between pre and post synaptic neurons • Chemical Process • Acetylcholine • Dopamine • Serotonin • Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine) • Any part of transmission can be altered by drugs

Activity Time!!! 1 st, on your card, write name, effect, and draw a picture.

Activity Time!!! 1 st, on your card, write name, effect, and draw a picture. In groups, you will act out each of the four Neurotransmitters. The class will attempt to guess which one a group is acting out. Group with the highest number correct wins bragging rights.

Drugs and Behavior

Drugs and Behavior

Dopamine • Controls • Voluntary movement • Learning • Feelings of pleasure

Dopamine • Controls • Voluntary movement • Learning • Feelings of pleasure

Serotonin • Controls • Sleep • Arousal levels • Emotion

Serotonin • Controls • Sleep • Arousal levels • Emotion

Learning Outcome • Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human

Learning Outcome • Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behavior

Hormones • Secreted by glands in the endocrine system • Adrenaline • Melatonin •

Hormones • Secreted by glands in the endocrine system • Adrenaline • Melatonin • Oxytocin

Adrenaline • Controls • Fight or Flight • Arousal • Alertness

Adrenaline • Controls • Fight or Flight • Arousal • Alertness

Melatonin • Controls sleep cycle • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) • Jet Lag

Melatonin • Controls sleep cycle • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) • Jet Lag

Melatonin Case Studies • Avery et al. 2001 • Lewy et al. 2006

Melatonin Case Studies • Avery et al. 2001 • Lewy et al. 2006

Oxytocin • Known as the “Love” or “Trust” hormone • Controls • Social Bonding

Oxytocin • Known as the “Love” or “Trust” hormone • Controls • Social Bonding

Oxytocin Case Studies • Pedersen and Boccia 2003 • Holt-Lunstad et al. 2008 •

Oxytocin Case Studies • Pedersen and Boccia 2003 • Holt-Lunstad et al. 2008 • Morhenn et al. 2008 • Turner et al. 1999

Pheromones • Chemicals secreted outside of the body • Evidence supports that pheromones have

Pheromones • Chemicals secreted outside of the body • Evidence supports that pheromones have an effect on other non-human animals • Thought to assist in mate-selection • In humans, androstadienone (AND) is found in sweat and it is suggested that women can detect AND, leading to “mood uplift”. • Research is still inconclusive as to whether AND is a pheromone • Studies lack ecological validity due to the unnatural doses needed to produce results

Pheromone Case Studies • Wedekind et al. 1995 • Smelly T-Shirts • Wyart et

Pheromone Case Studies • Wedekind et al. 1995 • Smelly T-Shirts • Wyart et al. 2007 • AND maintains a better mood and increases sexual arousal • Verhaeghe et al. 2013 • Empirical evidence supports mood uplift, depending on dosage

Learning Outcome • Using one or more examples, explain functions of two or more

Learning Outcome • Using one or more examples, explain functions of two or more hormones in human behavior.

Brain Localization • Answers the question • “Where in the brain do specific activities

Brain Localization • Answers the question • “Where in the brain do specific activities originate in the brain? ” • Phrenology • Franz Joseph Gall (1758 -1828) • Maps brain functions, based on bumps • Pseudoscience

Brain Imaging Technologies • EEG • Electroencephalogram • CT • Computed Tomography • MRI

Brain Imaging Technologies • EEG • Electroencephalogram • CT • Computed Tomography • MRI • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • f. MRI • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging • PET • Positron Emission Tomography

Electroencephalogram EEG • Electrodes placed around cranium. • Detects changes in electrical activity •

Electroencephalogram EEG • Electrodes placed around cranium. • Detects changes in electrical activity • Sleep research

Computed Tomography CT • Combines computer and X-ray technology • Produces images of the

Computed Tomography CT • Combines computer and X-ray technology • Produces images of the brain, in slices, at any angle • Does not show brain activity

Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI • Uses magnetic fields in conjunction with radio frequencies •

Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI • Uses magnetic fields in conjunction with radio frequencies • Can be used to create 3 D images of the brain

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging f. MRI slice at the level of the basal ganglia,

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging f. MRI slice at the level of the basal ganglia, showing f. MRI BOLD signal changes overlaid in red (increase) and blue (decrease) tones. In functional MRI, brain areas “light-up” when performing certain tasks.

Positron Emission Tomography PET • Requires injection of radioactive substance • Radioactive substance gives

Positron Emission Tomography PET • Requires injection of radioactive substance • Radioactive substance gives off gamma rays • Produces a colorful image of brain activity • Less precise structural image than an MRI

Case Studies • HM (1953, 1996) • Ogden 2005 • Sperry Split Brain •

Case Studies • HM (1953, 1996) • Ogden 2005 • Sperry Split Brain • Roger Sperry 1968 • Myers and Sperry 1953 • Phineas Gage • Frontal Lobe Damage 1848 • Case of Janet • Ogden 2005

Learning Outcome • Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain.

Learning Outcome • Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain.

Neuroplasticity • Concept that suggests that certain brain functions can be redistributed , based

Neuroplasticity • Concept that suggests that certain brain functions can be redistributed , based on environmental demands

Neuroplasticity Case Studies • Meditation • Brefczynski-Lewis et al. 2007 • Juggling • Draganski

Neuroplasticity Case Studies • Meditation • Brefczynski-Lewis et al. 2007 • Juggling • Draganski et al. 2004 • London Taxi Drivers • Maguire et al. 2000 • Brain Function Redistribution • Tierney et al. 2001

Learning Outcome • Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain.

Learning Outcome • Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain. • Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behavior and EVALUATE two relevant studies. • Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies in investigating the relationship between biological factors and behavior. • Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes.

Biological Level Principles in Research • Evolutionary Psychology • Physical and Behavioral changes based

Biological Level Principles in Research • Evolutionary Psychology • Physical and Behavioral changes based on environment • Social adaptation behaviors (hustling, homicide, homosexuality, Sparta? ) • Must assist in survival and reproduction • Genetic Studies • No single gene responsible for behavior • Inherent disposition must be triggered by environment • Ex: Trauma of divorce during childhood and inherent depression

Case Studies on Evolutionary and Genetic Behaviors • Phenotypes and Elevation • Clausen et

Case Studies on Evolutionary and Genetic Behaviors • Phenotypes and Elevation • Clausen et al. 1948 • Genetic Schizophrenia • Heston 1966 • Homosexuality • Zietsch et al. 2008 • Twin Studies and Homesexuality • Bailey and Pillard 1991 • Santtila et al. 2008

Learning Outcomes • With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic

Learning Outcomes • With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behavior? • Examine one evolutionary explanation of behavior.