IB: Examples of IA ideas IB PHYSICS DATA ANALYSIS for IA: https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=VBU 67 nw. Rtus How to get a LEVEL 7 in an IA https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=r. V 2 R-Mveb. GI
The task produced should be complex and commensurate with the level of the course. It should require a purposeful research question and the scientific rationale for it. Some of the possible tasks include: • a hands-on laboratory investigation • using a spreadsheet for analysis and modeling • extracting data from a database and analyzing it graphically • producing a hybrid of spreadsheet/database work with a traditional hands-on investigation • using a simulation, provided it is interactive and open-ended Some tasks may consist of relevant and appropriate qualitative work combined with quantitative work. The tasks will have the same assessment criteria for SL and HL. The five assessment criteria are personal engagement, exploration, analysis, evaluation, and communication.
Hands-on investigations – This includes many traditional experiments. Investigations are not restricted to syllabus content, and the concepts and skills required need only be in line with the level of the course the student is taking. Choose an IV /DV and then select values of control variables that make those measurements easier and able to take on a wide range of values. Usually involves comparing to a known value / constant / empirically determined engineering properties. Modeling and spreadsheet investigations – Here the student may process primary or secondary data and analyse it with a computer model. Spreadsheets and graphing software can be used in all investigation types. In some cases, real data can be compared to ideal or theoretical data by using a spreadsheet. More advanced: Typically involves using a mathematical model to make a prediction of how a variable will change over time as a result of certain choices in parameter. Uncertainty comes from computer rounding and step sizes used in calculation. Examples: Predict temperature change for a simple climate model. Predict motion including velocity-dependent forces like drag.
Database investigations – Here the student would access online databases for scientific information. They would design a method to answer their research question using the database, and perhaps graph or model their results. Teachers with large classes may encourage students to take this approach. You should investigate several sources for information, and choose the best, but you must understand/explain how others collected this data, and explain/propagate uncertainties. Usually good for interesting, complex data. Could involve comparing to professional results using the same data. Examples: astronomical data for orbits, brightnesses, velocities; particle accelerator data, nuclear / quantum data
Computer-simulation investigations – Investigations may involve computer simulations. Here, students can obtain information or data that will be processed to discover something that goes beyond the simulation’s routine. Students can also combine a hands-on investigation with a computer model and compare the results. Students may also combine real data with a mathematical model. You should be able to set at least one variable as a control variable in addition to your IV/DV. Explain why you set that control variable at the value you did. You must investigate SEVERAL simulations and justify why you chose this one. It MUST allow you to estimate and propagate uncertainties. Examples: Shooting charged particles into electric/magnetic fields, making measurements of phenomena too fast for hands-on data.
Hybrid investigations – It is understood that students might perform any combination of the above investigation types. The types are not exclusive categories but rather illustrate the wide range of acceptable investigation types. Examples: Using a database to look up specific heat capacities of materials, then testing them using hands-on data. Using database data as input to a modeling/spreadsheet calculation, as for nuclear reaction rates or radioactive decay. Collecting hands-on data to compare to the results of a simulation.
Total of 24 Marks – 20% of IB score • IB moderators will look at these five main criteria… • Personal engagement – 2 Marks (1 Aspect) • Independent and creative thinking, personal ownership and initiative are demonstrated in the investigation • Exploration – 6 Marks (3 Aspects) • Focused, researched, well-designed and outlined investigation is presented • Analysis – 6 Marks (3 Aspects) • Sufficient and relevant raw and correctly-processed data are gathered and displayed - including uncertainties • Evaluation – 6 Marks (3 Aspects) • A valid conclusion is described and justified, weaknesses and suggested improvements to investigation are discussed • Communication – 4 Marks (2 Aspects) • The overall presentation is clear, relevant, and concise
Personal Engagement [ 2 Marks ] Aspect 1  • Independent thinking • Creativity • Personal significance • Ownership
EXPLORATION Rubric: 0 -6 score Descriptor 1: Identify Topic Context/purpose Reminder: help the reader understand why this experiment is important in an objective sense—include your personal connection, but you must go BEYOND that. Why should we care about your research? Is there a real-world application? List a focused research question Common Mistake: Your research question should be a question, not a statement
EXPLORATION Rubric: 0 -6 score Descriptor 2: Background Information Background physics knowledge Reminder: You should include ALL relevant physics knowledge here, including equations, theories, laws, or previous experiments you’ll be building on. Reminder: Should be about 1 page in length Start with the “big picture” physics ideas that are important, and narrow down to explaining how those ideas are applied directly in YOUR system. THEN, derive or state the mathematical model that will be applied to your system. Should relate the DV to the IV. Use physics tools such as motion maps, force webs, free body diagrams, energy conservation bar charts, etc. State what you should plot to obtain a linearized graph, and give theoretical values for the slope and/or vertical intercept. All sources are credible All sources are properly cited (any format: MLA, APA, etc. )
EXPLORATION Rubric: 0 -6 score Descriptor 3: Methodology Description of your procedure Reminder: NOT a numbered list of steps but a broad overview of the logic Diagram/picture of setup with IV and DV labeled for clarity (probably paint) IV is evident Describe method to measure and change the IV Justify your range of IV: Why did you choose your IV levels? Why is your maximum IV what it is? Why is your minimum IV what it is? Why did you go up by certain increments? How will you set up the system to get the LARGEST POSSIBLE range of IV within the constraints of your classroom? Reminder: Your need justify that you used a sufficient amount of data to look for a reliable pattern DV is evident Describe method to precisely measure the DV Explain your choice of number of trials Reminder: you’re choosing enough trials to be convinced that your data is reproducible. Identify relevant control variables Describe method to keep the control variables constant
EXPLORATION Rubric: 0 -6 score Descriptor 3: Methodology Common Mistake: Your design should be so precise that someone could re-create the EXACT same experiment that you did. So don’t just list “height” as a control variable, but keep going and quantify that your control height is 2 m. Leave little to the imagination! Describe assumptions (things you can’t actively control, but are assuming remain constant) • Why did you choose the values of the constant variables you did? Spend significant time here to consider if you want large or small values of the constants. How will that make it easier or harder to measure your IV and DV? How will that affect your slope value? (Hint: is it better to have a larger or smaller slope? ) Do NOT state that the constant is “the cart”—what ABOUT the cart stays constant? Common Mistake: you only need to speak to the relevant control variables and assumptions! If it’s not relevant, don’t list it!
EXPLORATION Rubric: 0 -6 score Descriptor 4: Awareness of Safety, Ethics, and Environment Issues If appropriate to your experiment: Statement of significant safety, ethical or environmental issues. Reminder: If this does not make sense to comment on, please write “Safety, ethical, and environmental issues are not relevant to my investigation. ”
https: //www. linkedin. com/pulse/ib-physics-ia-how-choose-perfect-topicunder-15 -sally-weatherly ▪ browsing IB Physics IA ideas getting frustrated.
Step 1: Choose a General Area of Interest Please don’t overthink this step. Just maybe: Has any topic sparked you interest in recent physics lessons? Do you have any notable hobbies or passions? Have you watched any TV programmes (or You. Tube videos) that have sparked your interest? Geostationary satellites: none in 1950 Most of this is now non-operational and complete junk – space junk Here are some interesting topics of general interest: • Football • Bungee Jumping • Super Moons • Doppler effects • Exoplanets • Resonance in a wine glass • Depth and buoyant force • Pendulum damping and so on…
STEP 2: Choose an Easily Changeable Variable X (Independent Variable) To get great marks in your physics IA, you need to have a focussed research question. This will be in the following format: How does Variable X affect Variable Y? How does Variable X affect Variable Y We’ll start with Variable X, which is the independent variable that YOU change as part of your investigation. It needs to be an easily changeable variable about your topic of interest. Football Example If you chose football, then it is easy to change the following things about a football: • Pressure of a football • Angle of kick of a football • Radius of a football Variable X needs to be something that can be measured on a scale (e. g. time, mass, length, pressure, temperature). Don’t choose discrete properties (e. g. mass, length, pressure, temperature). type of material, type of fruit, etc) • Mass • Distance • Angle • Pressure • Radius • Volume • Temperature • Height • Power • Extension • Time • Voltage • Frequency • Wavelength • Intensity • Density • Cross-sectional area • Current
Step 3: Choose a Easily Measurable Variable Y (Dependent Variable) Variable Y is the dependent variable that changes AS A RESULT of variable X being changed. Your Variable Y (dependent variable) should be easily measurable Football Example Things that can be a easily measured about a football are: • Rebound height of a football • Range of a football • Terminal velocity Variable y has to be easily measurable! (e. g. frequency, resistance, rebound height, etc). The Variable y has to be easily measurable! internal energy of a gas is impossible, the time period of a fly’s wings is impossible too!) • Terminal velocity • Range of projectile • Rebound height • Velocity • Temperature • Power • Initial acceleration • Time Period • Time • Current • Resistance • Frequency
Step 4: Write Down Your Research Question How does…. (your variable X)… affect … (your variable Y) ? It is as simple as this! Write your research question down and check that it makes sense. Football Example 1. How does the pressure of a football affect the rebound height after one bounce 2. How does the angle that a football is kicked affect the range of the football? 3. How does the radius of a football affect the terminal velocity of the football? 4. How does the radius of a football affect the rebound height of a football after one bounce? 5. How does the angle that a football is kicked affect the rebound height?
Tip: try if it works! Make sure you can predict roughly what might happen. I know that decreasing the pressure in a football will decrease the rebound height. So I’ve got a pretty good idea that this will work. Or even better. Try it on a small and simple scale. The best investigations are able to predict the mathematical relationships between the variables. This will be your challenge in the Exploration section…. ! So…. you have your investigation research question, but is it any good? Extra Tip: Focus ONLY on one Variable X Your investigation will be great if you choose a well-focussed research question. Don’t include two or three related investigations in one lab report. Poor Research Question: How does the volume and radius affect the resistance of electrical putty? This research question means that two sets of data will be required. The resulting investigation will lack the depth of analysis needed to earn high marks. Extra Tip: Focus ONLY on related physics Question: How does temperature affect the coefficient of resistution of a tennis ball? This investigation would be rubbish if it only includes two pages on the history of tennis. However, if you show an innovative method, explain the relevant background theory, and write an interesting report – you can earn full marks!
25 BRILLIANT IB Physics IA Ideas • How does temperature affect the spring constant of a spring? • How does temperature affect the speed of sound in a solid? • How does the cross-sectional area of a football affect the terminal velocity? • How does the diameter of a string effect the fundamental frequency? • How does sugar concentration affect the refractive index of water? • How does temperature affect the viscosity of fluids? • How does the temperature affect the range of flight of an elastic band? • How does the temperature affect the internal resistance of a battery? • How does the cross-sectional area of blades affect the lift force of a toy helicopter? • How does the number of coils affect the efficiency of an electric motor? • How does the temperature affect the efficiency of a transformer? • How does the magnetic field strength of magnets affect the efficiency of an electric motor? • How does the water content of a plank of wood affect the Young modulus? • How does the thickness of human hair affect the Young Modulus? • How does temperature of a copper wire affect the Young Modulus? • How does the concentration of salt in water affect the specific heart capacity? • How does the angle on the sail on a toy boat affect the initial acceleration? • How does the cross-sectional area of a shuttle cock affect the range of projection? • How does temperature affect the restitution of a bouncing ball? • How does the cross-sectional area of a cardboard damper affect the damping coefficient of a spring in SHM? • How does the radius of a football affect the impulse on the football when kicked? • How does the mass added to an inflated balloon affect the terminal velocity of the falling balloon? • How does the paddle area of a waterwheel affect the efficiency of the waterwheel when converting into electrical energy? • How does the angle of initial release of a pendulum affect the subsequent calculation of ‘g’ from the pendulum?
Terrible IB Physics IA Ideas • Which is the best method to measure time? The Y variable (time) is measurable. The X variable is not defined. How do you define what the best method is? relative uncertainty? accuracy? This investigation is much too hard. • How does the type of surface affect the static friction? The Y variable is measurable (static friction). The X variable discrete (type of surface). This means that you will have to plot a bar chart, which is rubbish for IB Physics.
How Many Marks is the Perfect Research Question Worth? The choice of your research question will have an impact of the mark you receive for the Personal Engagement section of the marking scheme Personal Engagement is worth 2 marks out of 24. This means that Personal Engagement is worth 1. 7% of your final IB Physics Mark. Performing an investigation with a standard method and standard analysis but in a thoughtful way usually earns one mark for Personal Engagement. So, you could choose a very standard investigation (with no imagination at all!) and only be penalised by one mark. By spending days agonising over the perfect IA Topic, you are really only chasing 0. 8% of your final IB Physics mark. Don’t waste lots of time and effort searching for an IA topic – it is only worth 0. 8% of your final mark – at most. Also, Personal Engagement does NOT only asses the quality of the research question; it looks at the flow and engagement throughout the report and is assessed holistically.
Want Full Marks? Full mark in Personal Engagement is only awarded when a student demonstrates: • Independent thinking, initiative or creativity • Personal significance, interest and curiosity relating to the research question • Personal input in the design or implementation of the investigation Only the most insightful and thoughtful investigations get top marks in Personal Engagement. If you show a thorough and detailed analysis, a deep understanding of the issues, and a dedication to quality scientific work – then you can expect those full marks! Lesson Learned: If you are agonising over a topic – don’t bother. Choose something quickly.
DON’T MAKE THIS MISTAKE!!!! Do not write a sub-title in your investigation called “Personal Engagement” and then write a comment like this: Examiners HATE you writing artificial comments about your interests. If you use words like ‘fascinated’ and ‘passionate’ – the examiner will likely give you zero marks. The examiner will mark Personal Engagement holistically, which means it
Conclusion I know that finding a good Physics IA topic is difficult, but my 4 -Step Plan detailed above will show you how quick and simple it can actually be. Just remember that your research question needs to be focussed and in the form of: How does…. (your variable X)… affect … (your variable Y) ? Variable X is the independent variable and should be easily changeable • Variable Y is the dependent variable and should be easily measurable. You need to have a rough idea of what might happen. It would be even better if you knew if they variables were directly proportional, indirectly proportional, etc. Don’t worry if you’ve chosen the same topic as someone else. If you’re stuck – choose from one of the topics above! Finally, don’t make the same mistake that so many IB Physics students have made… don’t add a sub-title section “Personal Engagement. ” PLEASE DON’T!!!
The range and suitability of the work submitted ▪ popular investigations: formation of craters, frequency and musical string length, refractive index and solution density, wave speed and water depth, the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing ball, and of course projectiles, with and without air friction. How temperature affects various properties was a common and interesting theme. ▪ traditional mechanics labs (how mass affects the period of a spring oscillator) ▪ sophisticated online database investigations (exoplanets) ▪ computer simulations investigations too (properties of a Trebuchet). Some investigations were very popular, including the What makes a good investigation is not the topic or research question as such but it is rather the depth of understanding demonstrated by the student and a well-focused research question or task on a scientifically interesting topic. Mechanics, waves, and electricity and magnetism were popular topics. Most work submitted was suitable for assessment. With very standard investigations students often made a hypothesis that was obvious and already known in the given theory. Occasionally students would include two or three related investigations in one lab report. As a result investigations lacked the depth of analysis needed to earn high marks. A single focused research question is the best approach. A few investigations could have been extended essays.
IA GRADES 7: 20 -24 100 6: 17 -19 17=90 18=93 19=96 5: 14 -16 14=80 15=85 16=88 4: 11 -13 11=70 12=75 13=78 3: 8 -10 8=60 9=65 10=68