- Slides: 49
I. Nationalism & the Unification of Germany & Italy
B. Nationalism & Liberalism 1. Until 1860 s: nationalism associated w/ liberalism 2. After Social Revolutions of 1848 conservative political leaders built national identity through: – public education – universal military service – colonial conquests
A. Nationalism before 1871 1. Language usually created national unity, but… – language & citizenship rarely coincided – redraw boundaries of states to accommodate culture?
C. The Unification of Italy (1860– 1870) 1. By mid-19 th c. : popular sentiment for unification – opposed by Pope & Austria 2. Austrians pushed out of n. Italy
4. united Kingdom of Italy (1860): – headed by Victor Emmanuel
D. The Unification of Germany
German Unification 1. Until 1860 s German-speaking people split into: – – – 39 smaller states western half of Austrian Empire Prussia 2. Prussia took lead in German unity movement: – – had a strong industrial base modern army equipped latest military technology
E. Otto von Bismarck 1. During reign of Kaiser Wilhelm I (r. 1861– 88), Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achieved final unification of Germany through: – Diplomacy (Realpolitik) – Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, Italy Wilhelm I
When Wilhelm I of Prussia became Kaiser of Germany. . . the Second Reich began.
Bismarck’s Eisen und Blut (“Iron & Blood”)
F. Nationalism after 1871 1. After Franco-Prussian War: all politicians manipulated public opinion to bolster their governments 2. Used the press & public education in order to foster nationalistic loyalties 3. Nationalism used to justify imposition of majority language, religion, or customs – Russians “Russify” its diverse ethnic populations
#1. Thesis Writing Exercise Describe the role of nationalism (both liberal & conservative) in the creation of Germany before & after 1871.
G. Justification of Imperial Conquest 1. Herbert Spencer (1820– 1903) took up Charles Darwin’s ideas of “natural selection”: - applied to human societies - Social Darwinism - justified European conquest as “survival of the fittest”
II. The Great Powers of Europe, 1871– 1900
A. Germany at the Center of Europe 1. Under Bismarck, international relations revolved around Germany isolating France 2. Domestically, Germany used populism to: – – – gain popular support develop a strong sense of national unity Kaiser Wilhelm II (r. 1888– 1918) placed emphasis on acquiring colonies
B. The “Liberal Powers” France: – – now a 2 nd-rate power in Europe slower rate of industrialization Great Britain: – – stable government enormously expensive empire “Eastern Problem” of Ottomans ignored Germany while preoccupied w/ Russia
C. Problems in Russia 1. Ethnic diversity in Russia: – – spread of Russian nationalism & language divisive riots targeting Jews: pogroms 2. Tsar Alexander II (1861) “emancipated” serfs… but serfs turned into communal farmers 3. Russian loss in Russo-Japanese War (1904– 1905)
Tsar Alexander II Tsar Nicholas II a constitution & parliament (Duma) Tsar Alexander III
#2. Thesis Writing Exercise If the German, British, & French peoples were strengthened by the forces of nationalism, why did nationalism weaken Russia & Austria -Hungary?
II. New Technologies & the World Economy
A. Railroads 1. 1850 -1900 railroads in: – – Britain Germany Russia United States – France – Canada – Japan
B. Steamships 1. Technological developments increased size & speed of ocean-going vessels: – use of iron & steel for hulls – propellers – efficient engines
C. Telegraph Cables 1. system of submarine telegraph cables developed
D. Steel 1. inventions 18 th-19 th C. allowed production of large quantities of steel at low cost Illinois Steel Works in Joliet
E. The Chemical Industry 1. 1800 s brought large-scale manufacture of: – chemicals – synthetic dyes – PLASTICS! 2. Germany: gov’t-funded research & universities working w/ industries – German chemical & explosives industries most advanced
F. Electricity 1. Electricity used to power: – lamps, streetcars, subways, electric motors – created huge demand for copper
G. World Trade & Freight 1. 1850 -1913: – world trade expanded x 10 – cost of freight dropped 50 -95% 2. Growth of trade between industrial economies: – Western Europe & N. America prospered
H. Non-Industrial Areas 1. Undeveloped regions: – dependant on the export of raw materials 2. Until WW I, exports from tropical regions high. . .
#1. Thesis Writing Exercise What types of technologies changed over time, allowing European powers to build global empires?
II. Population Changes
A. Population & Migration 1. 1850 -1914: European population explosion 2. Emigration from Europe to: – U. S. – Australia – Argentina – Canada – New Zealand 3. “European” descent in world: 1/5 to 1/3
Total # of Emigrants 1820 -1920 Country of Emigrants Total # Germany 5, 500, 000 Ireland 4, 400, 000 Italy 4, 190, 000 Russia 3, 250, 000 England 1, 500, 000
1820 -1879 1880 -1919
B. Why the increase? – decrease in death rate – improved crop yields – grain from N. America – year-round diet from canning & refrigeration – urbanization
#2. Thesis Writing Exercise What were the leading causes of population growth during the late 1800’s?
III. Middle-Class Women The “Separate Sphere”
A. The Victorian Age 1. during reign of Queen Victoria (1837– 1901): – ideology of family structure – rules of behavior between men & women 2. men & women thought to belong in “separate spheres”: − men in workplace, women at home
A woman’s work is never done… 1. pre-electrical appliances: middle-class home demanded lots of work − 19 th-c. tech: eliminated some tasks 2. primary duty: childbearing & raise a family 3. Gender discrimination: women excluded from most jobs − lack of opportunities pushed many women to volunteer activities or join the suffrage movement
#3. Thesis Writing Exercise Describe some of the changes and continuities experienced by women during the 1800 s.
IV. Socialism & Labor Movements
A. Socialism 1. Intellectual movement started by: − Karl Marx (1818– 83) & Friedrich Engels (1820– 95) − both wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848) Karl Marx
The Ideas of Marx 1. Marx saw history as a social class war between… − capitalists (bourgeoisie) & workers (proletariat)
TODAY…China, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam, & North Korea
#4. Thesis Writing Exercise What were some of the social and economic conditions during the 1800 s that led to the rise of Socialism & Communism?