Hygiene Diploma Goals KSHS 4 000 Understanding basic
Hygiene Diploma Goals KSHS 4, 000
Understanding basic food hygiene Goals Ø On completion of this module you should be able to: Ø Describe the main hygiene issues. Ø Understand the importance of correct hygiene and food temperatures. Ø Understand the importance of correct food storage. Ø Explain the reasons for cleanliness, cleaning procedures and pest control. Ø Understand the consequences of incorrect food storage, and cleaning procedures.
How people spread bacteria Ø Hands Ø Coughing Ø Sneezing Ø Spitting Ø Touching, combing hair Ø Cuts and spots Ø Smoking
Handwashing Procedure Ø Use wash hand basins ONLY for washing hands: Wash hands with hot water. Use the nail brush as bacteria can survive under the nails. Ø Use soap & nail brush Ø Clean nails & between fingers Ø Dry thoroughly Ø Use instant sanitiser on the dry hands
Bacteria & Food Poisoning • People whose work involves food have special responsibilities for safeguarding the health of customers. They must ensure that the food does not cause illness, injury or any other problem. Food handlers have a legal obligation for keeping food safe to eat.
Benefits of good food hygiene Ø Satisfied customers Ø Good reputation Ø Loyal customers Ø Less food wastage & controlled costs Ø Pleasant place to work Ø Compliance with law Ø Better job security
Costs of poor food hygiene Ø Food poisoning Ø Bad reputation for your company Ø Customer complaints Ø Loss of revenue Ø Poor working conditions Ø Legal action Ø Possible redundancies Ø Closure of business Food Poisoning • “An illness caused by eating food contaminated by harmful substances or by harmful micro-organisms living on the food”
Symptoms of food poisoning: Ø Nausea Ø Vomiting Ø Diarrhoea Ø Abdominal Pain Ø Fever Ø Headache Ø Death
Causes of food poisoning Ø Bacteria - most common cause Ø Viruses - micro-organisms thriving on people, animals and other organisms Ø Moulds - micro-organisms that produce toxins on foods Ø Poisonous plants & fish - e. g. red kidney beans and toadstools Ø Chemicals & metals - absorbed from containers Ø or incorrect use of cleaning chemicals
People at risk Ø Young people Ø Old people Ø Pregnant women Ø Infirm people
Bacteria Sources Food poisoning bacteria come from 5 main sources: Ø Raw foods e. g. meat, poultry, eggs, shellfish & vegetables Ø Pests & pets Ø People Ø Air & dust Ø Dirt & food waste
Ideal conditions for bacterial growth Bacteria have the following requirements for growth: Ø Food Ø Moisture Ø Warmth Ø Time • Bacteria are unable to multiply without warmth and moisture. The more time they are given in these conditions the more they will multiply.
Multiplication times for bacteria Ø Binary fission is the process by which bacteria reproduce by dividing into 2 Ø Each bacteria needs 10 - 20 minutes to multiply Ø One bacterium could lead to millions of bacteria within hours High Risk Foods • Most food poisoning bacteria grow best on foods which are high in protein and contain moisture.
Typically high risk foods for the bakery business are: Cooked meats Salad fillings Prepared salad ingredients Cream cakes Pork pies and all savoury products Quiche Cooked meat, poultry, gravy, shellfish, eggs, milk and dairy products, rice and pasta are high risk foods. • High risk foods are foods which support the growth of food poisoning bacteria, are ready to eat and require no further cooking. they need to be kept atspecific temperatures for storage, for example sandwiches and cream cakes must be kept refrigerated at below 8 C and savoury good which are to be sold hot must be kept at a minimum temperature of 63 C Ø Ø Ø Ø
Main causes of food poisoning Ø Preparing food too far in advance & storing incorrectly Ø Inadequate cooling must be <8°C Ø Inadequate re-heating must be >75°C Ø Undercooking Ø Contaminated processed food Ø Infected food handlers contaminate food Ø Inadequate thawing Ø Cross contamination Ø Raw, unwashed food consumed
Temperature Control • Temperature control involves restricting the time that high risk foods are left at temperatures in the ‘DANGER ZONE’ which is between 8°C and 63°C. Ø Cold food should be kept below 8°C Ø Bakery fridges should run at 5°C
Keep food out of Danger Zone Ø Refrigerate raw, highly perishable and high risk foods immediately after delivery. Ø Frozen foods should also be placed in the freezer immediately to prevent them from defrosting. Ø Defrosted foods should never be re-frozen. Ø The correct storage temperature for frozen foods is -18°C or less. Ø Cook high risk food thoroughly, right through to the centre. Ø A minimum core temperature of 75°C must be reached for 2 minutes. Ø Core temperatures can be checked using a probe thermometer, if required. Ø Hot foods for sale must be held above 63°C (for example pies and pasties in the pie warmer at the shop.
Poor temperature control leads to food poisoning Examples of poor temperature control: Ø Preparing food too far in advance and storing at ambient temperatures Ø Leaving food out of the fridge for too long Ø Cooling food too slowly before refrigeration Ø Re-heating food inadequately Ø Under-cooking meat & poultry Ø Thawing frozen food insufficiently Ø Holding hot food below 63°C
Temperature monitoring Ø Daily temperature checks on all fridges, freezers & chilled display units are required by law Ø All these checks MUST be recorded Ø Report faults to your supervisor and the Maintenance department immediately Ø If you notice ANY fridge or freezer out of temperature, inform the supervisor immediately
Food Storage Ø Food needs constant care until it is sold or served, including the time during delivery and storage. It is important to handle and store food in the right conditions, at the correct temperature and for a safe length of time.
Aim of storage Correct storage of food helps to: Ø Prevent food borne illness Ø Preserve the taste, appearance & nutritional values of food Ø Provide adequate supplies Ø Avoid spoilage & waste Ø Keep to the budget Ø Keep within the law & avoid prosecution for selling unfit food
Types of Storage Ø Dry food stores: short & long term storage of canned, bottled & dried foods, tea & coffee, salt, sugar. Ø Rack Fridges: storing high risk & perishable foods for short periods. Ø Cold Counters: displaying chilled foods for very short periods. Ø Freezers: keeping food for longer periods.
Rules for safe storage Ø Put food away immediately after delivery Ø Deal with chilled & frozen foods first Ø Keep high risk foods out of the danger zone Ø Protect food from contamination Ø Never store food on the floor Ø Keep storage area clean and dry Ø Rotate stock Ø Check food before use; always tell your supervisor if food has spoilt or gone out of date Ø Inform your supervisor of any signs of pests
Refrigeration of food Ø Use separate fridges for raw & high risk foods Ø High risk ingredients such as cream must be stored separately from raw foods such as fruit and salad to avoid the risk of cross contamination Ø Always store raw meat or poultry at the bottom of the fridge Ø Never leave door open longer than necessary Ø Never put hot food in the fridge Ø Stack shelves so air can circulate & stock can be checked easily
Safe Frozen Storage Ø Freezers should operate at – 18°C Ø Place raw foods below high risk foods to avoid contamination Ø Place stock with longest shelf below food with a shorter life Ø Never re-freeze previously defrosted products
Storing dry goods Ø Dry goods must be kept in cool, dry well ventilated conditions Ø There must be sufficient space between stock to allow air to flow freely & for you to check goods Ø Secure packaging is necessary to discourage pests Ø Stock must be rotated regularly even though it has a long shelf life
Food spoilage All food gradually goes bad through a natural process of aging, called spoilage. Signs of spoilt food include: Ø Discolouration-dark or pale Ø Visible mould Ø Changes to usual smell Ø Changes in texture-wrinkling, drying or softening
Moulds • Most moulds result in food spoilage and make it unfit to eat. There are some poisonous moulds usually found on nuts or cereals. Moulds are commonly found on dry products such as bread or sweet foods such as jam. Inform your manager immediately if you see mould on our products.
Spoilt food. . . • Spoilt food is bad for business for numerous reasons: Ø Causes food-borne illness Ø Breaking the law, because it is illegal to sell food unfit for consumption Ø Gaining a poor reputation by serving food that is unappetising Ø Offering food that has lost most of its nutritional value
Date marks Food must be labelled with a date indicating when the food is safe to eat. Ø Highly perishable foods must be marked with a USE BY date Ø Less perishable items must carry a BEST BEFORE date Ø Use by dates are used on food that need to be kept refrigerated ( below 8 C). and have a shelf life. It is an offence to sell food past the used by date. Used by dates are used on cooked meets, prepared salads , sandwiches etc. Ø Best before dates are used on less perishable foods and give an indication of quality rather than food safety. For example , biscuits past the best before date may become soft but they will not be unsafe to eat. Examples of other foods with a best before date include tinned, packet and dried foods which can safely be kept at room temperature for more than a few days.
Contamination of food Ø Food contamination is caused by 3 groups of contaminants: Ø Physical Ø Chemical Ø Microbial • Microbial contaminants are the main cause of food-borne illness. Sources of microbial contamination Ø Raw food Ø People Ø Pests & pets Ø Air & dust Ø Water Ø Soil Ø Food waste
Preventing bacterial contamination In order to avoid food poisoning through bacterial contamination it is necessary to: Ø Ensure high risk & raw foods are separated at all times, including storage, transport, preparation & display. Ø Ensure all surfaces that come into contact with raw food are thoroughly cleaned & disinfected after use. Ø Follow strict personal hygiene habits. Ø Keep food areas clean at all times.
Preventing physical contamination Ø Ensure correct uniform is worn, including hat. Ø Do not wear jewellery or keep pens or other items in pockets or behind the ear. Ø Undo packaging away from food areas. Ø Remove rubbish frequently. Ø Keep food area tidy.
Preventing chemical contamination Ø Store cleaning chemicals in secure, clearly labelled containers, well away from food. Ø Always use the correct chemical for the job and follow the methods and quantities specified.
Cleaning & Disinfection Ø Customers expect food premises to be clean & they assume that you handle their food hygienically. Ø Clean & tidy workplaces create a good impression & make a safe, pleasant environment. Even when something looks clean, it could be contaminated. Ø Cleaning is the process of making something free from dirt and contamination. It involves the use of energy - your effort or that of a machine such as a dishwasher. Activities include wiping, rubbing, scouring, brushing and sweeping.
The Aim of Cleaning is intended to keep food and workplaces safe and in particular to: Ø Protect food from microbial contamination Ø Protect food from physical & chemical contamination Ø Avoid attracting pests Ø Create a good impression for customers Ø Carry out legal and moral obligations to keep food safe • Cleaning also reduces opportunities for bacterial multiplication, by removing food particles. Cleaning is important for maintaining a safe environment, for example to stop someone from slipping on a greasy floor
Detergent • Detergents help to dissolve grease and remove dirt. With the use of energy, a detergent and hot water may kill some pathogenic bacteria, but most will survive. To prevent the bacteria from causing food borne illness, some items and equipment must be disinfected after they have been cleaned.