Human Impact on the Biosphere Packet Page 28

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Human Impact on the Biosphere Packet Page 28 * Turn in HW article*

Human Impact on the Biosphere Packet Page 28 * Turn in HW article*

Why do humans impact the environment? • Humans have a large impact on the

Why do humans impact the environment? • Humans have a large impact on the environment and the organisms we share it with. • This is due to our – Increasing population size. – Increasing use of both renewable and non-renewable resources.

The Carbon Cycle • Cycling of carbon through the environment mainly in the form

The Carbon Cycle • Cycling of carbon through the environment mainly in the form of CO 2 and carbohydrates. • Photosynthesis is the main process that removes carbon from the atmosphere. • Cellular respiration is the main process that releases carbon into the atmosphere.

What processes remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere? • Photosynthesis by land aquatic autotrophs

What processes remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere? • Photosynthesis by land aquatic autotrophs • Precipitation onto land & ocean • Ocean is the main regulator because carbon dioxide dissolves easily in it.

What processes release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere? • Cellular respiration by autotrophs &

What processes release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere? • Cellular respiration by autotrophs & heterotrophs. • Decomposition of organisms • Volcanic activity • Human activities - mining, cutting and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels

What stores carbon dioxide? • Limestone (calcium carbonate) rock • Decomposition of organisms and

What stores carbon dioxide? • Limestone (calcium carbonate) rock • Decomposition of organisms and their conversion into fossil fuels • Diffusion of carbon into the ocean

The Carbon Cycle http: //www. windows. ucar. edu/earth/climate/images/carboncycle. jpg

The Carbon Cycle http: //www. windows. ucar. edu/earth/climate/images/carboncycle. jpg

Human Activity and the Carbon Cycle • Human activity is releasing CO 2 and

Human Activity and the Carbon Cycle • Human activity is releasing CO 2 and other related forms of carbon into the atmosphere at a much faster rate then they are absorbed. • This is due to: – Clear-cutting and burning forests for housing and farming – Burning fossil fuels • These activities have resulted in a global climate change.

What is the Greenhouse Effect? • The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature

What is the Greenhouse Effect? • The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature due to certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, & methane (CH 4) in particular) trapping out-going heat energy. • Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60ºF colder. • Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases.

So then what is Global Warming? • The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming are

So then what is Global Warming? • The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming are NOT the same thing!!! • Global Warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans. • Global Warming affects the Greenhouse Effect. – Greenhouse Effect = GOOD – Global Warming = BAD

http: //www. darlington. gov. uk/NR/rdonlyres/2091 F 156 -0 B 6 A-456 B-B 5 FA-24579

http: //www. darlington. gov. uk/NR/rdonlyres/2091 F 156 -0 B 6 A-456 B-B 5 FA-24579 F 372 F 36/0/greenhouseeffect. jpg

What are the Possible Effects of Global Warming? These include: • Flooding of coastal

What are the Possible Effects of Global Warming? These include: • Flooding of coastal areas. • Increased spreading of disease. http: //www. greatdreams. com/flood-antigo-2004 b. jpg http: //www. nytimes. com/2007/07/04/us/04 drought. html? _r=1&oref=slogin • Drought across inland areas. http: //www. michigan. gov/images/mosquito_65147_7. jpg

How are humans creating acid rain? • The burning of fossil fuels also releases

How are humans creating acid rain? • The burning of fossil fuels also releases nitrogen and sulfur compounds into the atmosphere. • These compounds combine with water vapor in the air to produce acids. • The acids then migrate for miles and fall as acid rain.

http: //www. greeneducation. org. hk/English/focus/wpe 28. gif

http: //www. greeneducation. org. hk/English/focus/wpe 28. gif

Effects of Acid Rain • Causes acidification of lakes and streams which affects aquatic

Effects of Acid Rain • Causes acidification of lakes and streams which affects aquatic ecosystems. • Contributes to the damage of trees/plants by acidification of soils. • In addition, acid rain accelerates the breakdown of building materials, paints, statues, and sculptures that are part of our cultural heritage.

http: //www. newsroom. ucr. edu/releases/images/257_3. gif

http: //www. newsroom. ucr. edu/releases/images/257_3. gif

The Ozone Layer • The ozone layer (O 3), found in the stratosphere, protects

The Ozone Layer • The ozone layer (O 3), found in the stratosphere, protects us from UV light. • UV light causes cancer, eye damage, and can damage plant tissue. http: //images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //www. ec. gc. ca/ozone/DOCS/KIDZONE/images/ozn_layr. gif&imgrefurl=http: //www. ec. gc. ca/ozone/DOCS/KIDZONE/EN/ozoneupthere. cfm&h=4 25&w=301&sz=78&hl=en&start=3&tbnid=NLHDAm. Xo. Pw. Z 2 M: &tbnh=126&tbnw=89&prev=/images%3 Fq%3 Dozone%2 Blayer%26 gbv%3 D 2%26 svnum%3 D 10%26 hl%3 Den%26 safe%3 Dactive

The hole in the ozone layer – South Pole There is currently a large

The hole in the ozone layer – South Pole There is currently a large hole in the ozone layer over Antartica. http: //www. solstation. com/stars/ozo-hole. jpg

What Destroys the Ozone Layer? • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are broken apart by UV light.

What Destroys the Ozone Layer? • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are broken apart by UV light. This causes a chain of chemical reactions that results in ozone being broken apart. • CFC’s were used in aerosol cans, and as coolants in freezers and air conditioners. They are now banned, but some are still used in less developed areas. • Even with decreased use of CFC’s it will take another 50 years before the hole in the ozone layer begins to shrink and disappear.

Biological Bioaccumulation/Magnification • Biological Bioaccumulation (magnification) occurs when a substance or toxin such as

Biological Bioaccumulation/Magnification • Biological Bioaccumulation (magnification) occurs when a substance or toxin such as pesticides build up in animal tissue as you move up a food chain.

Biological Accumulation • http: //techalive. mtu. edu/meec/module 02/Bi oconcentrationand. Bioaccumulation. htm

Biological Accumulation • http: //techalive. mtu. edu/meec/module 02/Bi oconcentrationand. Bioaccumulation. htm

What are some examples of how humans assist in bioaccumulation? • DDT was used

What are some examples of how humans assist in bioaccumulation? • DDT was used in Borneo to kill mosquitoes. Lizards ate the mosquitoes. Cats ate the lizards. Cats began dying. • With no cats, the rat population grew. • Rats began spreading disease. • They came up with an interesting solution…. .

Parachuting Cats http: //imagecache 2. allposters. com/images/pic/ARG/21033~Parachute-Cats-Posters. jpg

Parachuting Cats http: //imagecache 2. allposters. com/images/pic/ARG/21033~Parachute-Cats-Posters. jpg

DDT in the United States • DDT was used to kill mosquitoes. • DDT

DDT in the United States • DDT was used to kill mosquitoes. • DDT bioaccumulated and was found in high levels in the bald eagle. • DDT caused the birds to lay eggs with pores in their shells. • When the parent birds sat on the eggs, the eggs broke. • Our national bird almost went extinct.

DDT in the United States • DDT is still in the environment despite the

DDT in the United States • DDT is still in the environment despite the fact that the last time it was sprayed was over 20 years ago.

How do humans threaten biodiversity? There are 4 basic ways that human actions threaten

How do humans threaten biodiversity? There are 4 basic ways that human actions threaten biodiversity: • Introducing non-native species (invasive species) • Hunting organisms to extinction • Introducing toxins into the environment • Habitat destruction

Invasive species in NC Plants and animals brought into an area form other places

Invasive species in NC Plants and animals brought into an area form other places can become invasive species. Invasive species can multiply quickly if there are no parasites or predators to control their numbers. For example: Kudzu was first introduced to the United States as an ornamental plant, but it quickly became an invasive species in much of the Southeastern U. S.

Biodiversity is important because…….

Biodiversity is important because…….

Many medicines come from nature • We get digitalis, a heart medication, from foxglove.

Many medicines come from nature • We get digitalis, a heart medication, from foxglove. • We get Taxol, the cancer fighting chemical, from Pacific yew.

Imagine the possible undiscovered medical miracles that could be hiding in the areas/species that

Imagine the possible undiscovered medical miracles that could be hiding in the areas/species that have not been studied yet.

We get genetic diversity • Most crop plants have wild relatives with useful traits.

We get genetic diversity • Most crop plants have wild relatives with useful traits. • We will visit this “library” when we need genes to improve our crop plants.

Ecosystems are more stable Ecosystems with more organisms are more stable (or homeostatic).

Ecosystems are more stable Ecosystems with more organisms are more stable (or homeostatic).

Summary Humans Affect the Biosphere in 4 Essential Ways: A. Global Climate Change and

Summary Humans Affect the Biosphere in 4 Essential Ways: A. Global Climate Change and Acid Rain B. The Ozone Layer C. Biological Magnification /Bioaccumulation D. Threatening Biodiversity

What can you do to help? Are your actions sustainable?

What can you do to help? Are your actions sustainable?

References http: //www. environmentaldefense. org/images/issue_photo_12. jpg http: //www. ghgonline. org/images/fire. jpg http: //www. crh.

References http: //www. environmentaldefense. org/images/issue_photo_12. jpg http: //www. ghgonline. org/images/fire. jpg http: //www. crh. noaa. gov/iwx/wxpics/flooding/woodburnaug 01. jpeg http: //dep. state. ct. us/burnatr/wildlife/kids/images/kpmsqui 2. gif http: //www. epa. gov/sunwise/images/ozone. gif http: //images. encarta. msn. com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho /000 f 1 c 7 d. jpg http: //www. anselm. edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbios/54 -25 DDTIn. Food. Chain-L. jpg http: //www. americanroyalarts. com/library/FC 12. jpg http: //www. fws. gov/endangered/photos/bird/baldeagle_in_snow. jpg

References http: //www. botgard. ucla. edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbo tany/images/Digitalisflowers. jpg http: //www. agen. ufl. edu/~chyn/age 2062/lect_28/40_07.

References http: //www. botgard. ucla. edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbo tany/images/Digitalisflowers. jpg http: //www. agen. ufl. edu/~chyn/age 2062/lect_28/40_07. GIF http: //www. answers. com/main/content/wp/encommons/b/bc/Rainforest_Fatu_Hiva. jpg http: //oceanworld. tamu. edu/students/coral/images/coral_reef_1. jpg http: //www. geo. msu. edu/geo 333/images/slide 1 -R-corn. JPEG

Human Activity and the Carbon Cycle • Human activity is releasing CO 2 and

Human Activity and the Carbon Cycle • Human activity is releasing CO 2 and other related forms of carbon into the atmosphere at a much faster rate then they are absorbed. • This is due to: – Clear-cutting and burning forests for housing and farming – Burning fossil fuels • These activities have resulted in a global climate change.

What is the Greenhouse Effect? • The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature

What is the Greenhouse Effect? • The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature due to certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, & methane (CH 4) in particular) trapping out-going heat energy. • Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60ºF colder. • Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases.

So then what is Global Warming? • The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming are

So then what is Global Warming? • The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming are NOT the same thing!!! • Global Warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans. • Global Warming affects the Greenhouse Effect. – Greenhouse Effect = GOOD – Global Warming = BAD

http: //www. darlington. gov. uk/NR/rdonlyres/2091 F 156 -0 B 6 A-456 B-B 5 FA-24579

http: //www. darlington. gov. uk/NR/rdonlyres/2091 F 156 -0 B 6 A-456 B-B 5 FA-24579 F 372 F 36/0/greenhouseeffect. jpg

What are the Possible Effects of Global Warming? These include: • Flooding of coastal

What are the Possible Effects of Global Warming? These include: • Flooding of coastal areas. • Increased spreading of disease. • Drought across inland areas. http: //www. greatdreams. com/flood-antigo-2004 b. jpg http: //www. nytimes. com/2007/07/04/us/04 drought. html? _r=1&oref=slogin http: //www. michigan. gov/images/mosquito_65147_7. jpg

How are humans creating acid rain? • The burning of fossil fuels also releases

How are humans creating acid rain? • The burning of fossil fuels also releases nitrogen and sulfur compounds into the atmosphere. • These compounds combine with water vapor in the air to produce acids. • The acids then migrate for miles and fall as acid rain.

http: //www. greeneducation. org. hk/English/focus/wpe 28. gif

http: //www. greeneducation. org. hk/English/focus/wpe 28. gif

Effects of Acid Rain • Causes acidification of lakes and streams which affects aquatic

Effects of Acid Rain • Causes acidification of lakes and streams which affects aquatic ecosystems. • Contributes to the damage of trees/plants by acidification of soils. • In addition, acid rain accelerates the breakdown of building materials, paints, statues, and sculptures that are part of our cultural heritage.

The Ozone Layer • The ozone layer (O 3), found in the stratosphere, protects

The Ozone Layer • The ozone layer (O 3), found in the stratosphere, protects us from UV light. • UV light causes cancer, eye damage, and can damage plant tissue. http: //images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //www. ec. gc. ca/ozone/DOCS/KIDZONE/images/ozn_layr. gif&imgrefurl=http: //www. ec. gc. ca/ozone/DOCS/KIDZONE/EN/ozoneupthere. cfm&h=4 25&w=301&sz=78&hl=en&start=3&tbnid=NLHDAm. Xo. Pw. Z 2 M: &tbnh=126&tbnw=89&prev=/images%3 Fq%3 Dozone%2 Blayer%26 gbv%3 D 2%26 svnum%3 D 10%26 hl%3 Den%26 safe%3 Dactive

The hole in the ozone layer – South Pole There is currently a large

The hole in the ozone layer – South Pole There is currently a large hole in the ozone layer over Antartica. http: //www. solstation. com/stars/ozo-hole. jpg

What Destroys the Ozone Layer? • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are broken apart by UV light.

What Destroys the Ozone Layer? • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are broken apart by UV light. This causes a chain of chemical reactions that results in ozone being broken apart. • CFC’s were used in aerosol cans, and as coolants in freezers and air conditioners. They are now banned, but some are still used in less developed areas. • Even with decreased use of CFC’s it will take another 50 years before the hole in the ozone layer begins to shrink and disappear.