Human Biotechnology Human Biotechnology is about you and

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Human Biotechnology

Human Biotechnology

Human Biotechnology • is about you and me, not about other creatures on Earth

Human Biotechnology • is about you and me, not about other creatures on Earth • could a perfect person be in the near future

Human Biotechnology • we are not sure if we want one, or if we

Human Biotechnology • we are not sure if we want one, or if we do, what traits we would want

The Human Organism • humans are similar to other animals, but major differences •

The Human Organism • humans are similar to other animals, but major differences • scientific name of human = Homo Sapiens

The Human Organism • first Homo Sapiens on earth- 300, 000 to 400, 000

The Human Organism • first Homo Sapiens on earth- 300, 000 to 400, 000 years ago • each body cell of a human has 46 chromosomes

The Human Organism • human consists of cells, tissue, organs, organ systems • humans

The Human Organism • human consists of cells, tissue, organs, organ systems • humans are primates (180 species of animals are primates), but still quite different

The Human Organism • organ systems do a lot of work (e. g. the

The Human Organism • organ systems do a lot of work (e. g. the heart - at age of 70 it has pumped 46 million gallons)

The Human Organism • heart failure is leading cause of the human death •

The Human Organism • heart failure is leading cause of the human death • skeleton protects the internal organs

The Human Organism • ligaments are tissues that hold the skeleton together • skin

The Human Organism • ligaments are tissues that hold the skeleton together • skin covers the body and maintains the body temperature

The Human Organism • nerve endings in skin sense pain, cold, heat… • brain

The Human Organism • nerve endings in skin sense pain, cold, heat… • brain provides response to these conditions

The Human Organism • muscles provide movement • cells must have nutrients to correctly

The Human Organism • muscles provide movement • cells must have nutrients to correctly function

The Human Organism • digestive system breaks food into useful substances • respiratory system

The Human Organism • digestive system breaks food into useful substances • respiratory system provides oxygen to the body and rids it of carbon dioxide

The Human Organism • gas exchange with the blood occurs in the lungs

The Human Organism • gas exchange with the blood occurs in the lungs

The Human Organism • circulatory system (heart, blood vessels) carries oxygen from the lungs

The Human Organism • circulatory system (heart, blood vessels) carries oxygen from the lungs for the cells and brings wastes to the lungs and kidneys

The Human Organism • urinary system removes certain wastes from blood and flushes them

The Human Organism • urinary system removes certain wastes from blood and flushes them from the body

The Human Organism • wastes move to urinary bladder and is squeezed from the

The Human Organism • wastes move to urinary bladder and is squeezed from the body through the urethra • reproductive systems vary with gender

The Human Organism • mammary system develops in females (milk for babies)

The Human Organism • mammary system develops in females (milk for babies)

Life Process • includes growth and repair, obtaining food and nutrients, circulation, respiration, secretion,

Life Process • includes growth and repair, obtaining food and nutrients, circulation, respiration, secretion, sensation movement, and elimination

Life Process • reproduction - human continues as new generations

Life Process • reproduction - human continues as new generations

Life Process • humans have high developed brain and gives us the abilities to

Life Process • humans have high developed brain and gives us the abilities to speak, to reason, to create technology

Life Process • to stand up right, to walk on two legs distinguish us

Life Process • to stand up right, to walk on two legs distinguish us from the primates • humans live longer and develop slower

Human Development • is the progressive maturation of an individual from birth until death

Human Development • is the progressive maturation of an individual from birth until death • culture consists of the ways individuals have developed to go about life

Human Development • characteristics are transmitted from one to another generation

Human Development • characteristics are transmitted from one to another generation

Developmental Stages • combination of biological and cultural advancement has several developmental stages

Developmental Stages • combination of biological and cultural advancement has several developmental stages

Developmental Stages • common stages are: -Infancy -Preschool -Child Years -Teenage Years -Adulthood

Developmental Stages • common stages are: -Infancy -Preschool -Child Years -Teenage Years -Adulthood

Biotech Supports Development • used to promote health • ethical decisions are involved •

Biotech Supports Development • used to promote health • ethical decisions are involved • people vary about the view of biotech

Human Genomics • is all of the genes that comprise the genetic makeup of

Human Genomics • is all of the genes that comprise the genetic makeup of humans • is the total genetic composition of humans

Human Genomics • efforts are now underway to identify all genomes • will allow

Human Genomics • efforts are now underway to identify all genomes • will allow isolation, treatment, replacement of defective ones

Human Genome Project • (HGP) is an international effort of involving scientists, educators, students

Human Genome Project • (HGP) is an international effort of involving scientists, educators, students in locating and identifying every human gene

Human Genome Project • HGP • large task • will provide insight into evolution

Human Genome Project • HGP • large task • will provide insight into evolution

4 Approaches • Genetic Mapping • Physical Mapping • Sequencing • Analyzing genomes of

4 Approaches • Genetic Mapping • Physical Mapping • Sequencing • Analyzing genomes of other species

4 Approaches to HGP • Genetic Mapping • Physical Mapping • Sequencing • Analyzing

4 Approaches to HGP • Genetic Mapping • Physical Mapping • Sequencing • Analyzing genomes of other species

Background • Human Genome Organization (HUGO) is an international group that coordinates HGP •

Background • Human Genome Organization (HUGO) is an international group that coordinates HGP • formed in 1988

Background • Canada, Italy, France, UK, USA are active • efforts with mice, bacteria,

Background • Canada, Italy, France, UK, USA are active • efforts with mice, bacteria, plants

Background • 3 bacterial genomes have been completed • progress has been more rapid

Background • 3 bacterial genomes have been completed • progress has been more rapid than expected • widespread use of HGP information in 2010

Findings • human organism has about 100, 000 genes • has 23 pairs of

Findings • human organism has about 100, 000 genes • has 23 pairs of chromosomes - 22 autosomal chromosome pairs and 1 sex chromosome pair ( YY or

Findings • more than 3 billion base pairs in haploid genome • an autosome

Findings • more than 3 billion base pairs in haploid genome • an autosome is a chromosome that is not sex chromosome

Findings • physical maps show locations of and distances between genes and DNA fragments

Findings • physical maps show locations of and distances between genes and DNA fragments

Findings • genetic linkage map shows the relative arrangement and distance between genes •

Findings • genetic linkage map shows the relative arrangement and distance between genes • then DNA gets sequenced

Helping Humans live better • scientist have been manipulating genes at the molecular level

Helping Humans live better • scientist have been manipulating genes at the molecular level • these efforts improve human well being

Helping Humans live better • down’s syndrome is a disease in which a baby

Helping Humans live better • down’s syndrome is a disease in which a baby is born with an extra chromosome

Helping Humans live better • 1 in 600 - 800 babies is born with

Helping Humans live better • 1 in 600 - 800 babies is born with it • having a baby with down syndrome increase with the mother’s age

Helping Humans Live Better • small head, enlarged tongue, eyes that slant upward •

Helping Humans Live Better • small head, enlarged tongue, eyes that slant upward • many die within year • no treatments available

Gene Therapy • is the transfer of genes to a human organism • make

Gene Therapy • is the transfer of genes to a human organism • make up of a human is altered

Gene Therapy • procedure is controversial • once therapy is done, the human is

Gene Therapy • procedure is controversial • once therapy is done, the human is a GMO (genetically modified organism)

Vaccine • help the body to recognize and fight disease • use weakened or

Vaccine • help the body to recognize and fight disease • use weakened or killed germs for a virus to introduce antigen proteins attached to a virus

Vaccine • body builds resistance • vaccine for hepatitis is made by inserting the

Vaccine • body builds resistance • vaccine for hepatitis is made by inserting the gene responsible for this antigen into yeast cells

Vaccine • each yeast cell makes a copy of itself and the antigen gene

Vaccine • each yeast cell makes a copy of itself and the antigen gene • antigen is later purified

Vaccine • when injected into the body, antigen stimulates the production of antibodies that

Vaccine • when injected into the body, antigen stimulates the production of antibodies that combat hepatitis

Prosthetics • is the use of artificial parts of the human body • includes

Prosthetics • is the use of artificial parts of the human body • includes the study and use of mechanical devises to replace or supplement natural human parts

Prosthetics • that includes joint replacements, heart peacemakers, intraocular lenses

Prosthetics • that includes joint replacements, heart peacemakers, intraocular lenses

Prosthetics • a dialysis machine is a kind of prosthesis that performs functions normal

Prosthetics • a dialysis machine is a kind of prosthesis that performs functions normal kidneys would do in removing wastes from blood

Prosthetics • biocompatibility implanted devices must be mechanically fit for the purpose and not

Prosthetics • biocompatibility implanted devices must be mechanically fit for the purpose and not rejected by the body

Prosthetics • externally used devices must provide the appropriate mechanical action and support

Prosthetics • externally used devices must provide the appropriate mechanical action and support

Prosthetics • carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that develops when people do the

Prosthetics • carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that develops when people do the same activities over and over • mechanical devices are used to promote healing

Diagnostics • is the identification of a human health problem or other conditions •

Diagnostics • is the identification of a human health problem or other conditions • knowing the approach to use in treating disease requires accurate diagnosis of condition

Genomics and Computers • diagnosis relies on human genetic information • computer databases are

Genomics and Computers • diagnosis relies on human genetic information • computer databases are being used in diagnostics • help matching genes with health conditions

Microdissection and Molecular Analysis • Microdissection is a method of obtaining pure cells from

Microdissection and Molecular Analysis • Microdissection is a method of obtaining pure cells from diseased sections of tissue

Microdissection and Molecular Analysis • is often used to test for precancerous cells or

Microdissection and Molecular Analysis • is often used to test for precancerous cells or invading cancer cells

Microdissection and Molecular Analysis • molecular analysis can be used to study the cells

Microdissection and Molecular Analysis • molecular analysis can be used to study the cells for evidence of disease

Microdissection and Molecular Analysis • allows comparison with diseased DNA stored in microdissected libraries

Microdissection and Molecular Analysis • allows comparison with diseased DNA stored in microdissected libraries or bulk tissue libraries